Blood from HIV-infected human subjects shows an immune response against a cat AIDS virus protein, a surprise finding that could help scientists find a way to develop a human AIDS vaccine, researchers report. This discovery supports further exploration of a human AIDS vaccine derived from regions of the feline AIDS virus.
Researchers have added a new layer of information to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia related to the proteins around which DNA gets wrapped in the cell. This proteomics technique points the way to a potential drug target for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Researchers have shown that a specific protein pair may be a successful prognostic biomarker for identifying smoking-related lung cancers. The protein— ASCL1— is associated with increased expression of the RET oncogene, a particular cancer-causing gene called RET.
The first proteomic analysis of an animal model of a rare, sometimes deadly birth defect, Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), has revealed that the molecular mechanisms that cause it are more complex than previously understood. SLOS involves multiple neurosensory and cognitive abnormalities, mental and physical disabilities, including those affecting vision and in severe cases, death before the age of 10.
In a new study, researchers report that mutation of a gene associated with some autism forms in humans can hinder the proper growth and connectivity of brain cells in mice. They also show how that understanding allowed them to restore proper cell growth in the lab.
A team of scientists have shown that a protein once thought to inhibit the growth of tumors is instead required for initial tumor growth. The findings could point to a new approach to cancer treatment. The focus of the study was angiomotin, a protein that coordinates cell migration, especially during the start of new blood vessel growth and proliferation of other cell types.
Researchers have shown that they can turn genes on or off inside yeast and human cells by controlling when DNA is copied into messenger RNA— an advance that could allow scientists to better understand the function of those genes. The technique could also make it easier to engineer cells that can monitor their environment, produce a drug or detect disease.
Among scientists, the role of proteins called sirtuins in enhancing longevity has been hotly debated, driven by contradictory results from many different scientists. New research has identified the mechanism by which a specific sirtuin protein called Sirt1 operates in the brain to bring about a significant delay in aging and an increase in longevity.
A stress-related protein genetically linked to depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders contributes to the acceleration of Alzheimer’s disease, a new study has found. When the protein FKBP51 partners with another protein, Hsp90, the team prevents the brain from clearing the toxic tau protein, associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
A test designed to measure levels of normal and abnormal forms of the huntingtin protein— the mutated form of which causes Huntington’s disease (HD)— was successful in detecting levels of the mutant protein, in a large multicenter study of individuals at risk for the devastating neurological disorder. The team also found changes in levels of the mutated protein that might predict when symptoms will appear.
Cancer drugs known as ErbB inhibitors have shown great success in treating patients with various types of cancer, but due to ErbB drug resistance, many other patients do not respond or have tumors come back. A new study reveals that much of this resistance develops because a protein called AXL helps cancer cells to circumvent the drug's effects.
Analyses of protein structure and function depend on the reliable production of pure, functionally active protein, but traditional centrifugation-based affinity purification presents challenges. Batch processing of resins in microcentrifuge tubes is subject to sample loss during aspiration, and spin columns have a limited volume capacity that makes protocols tedious and requires multiple spin cycles.
For decades, there has been no answer to the question of why the altered prion protein- the infectious pathogen that causes Mad Cow Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease- is poisonous to brain cells. Now, neuropathologists have shown that it is the flexible tail of the prion protein that triggers cell death.
Optogenetics is revolutionizing the field of behavioral neuroscience by enabling researchers to control the activity of individual neurons and measure the effects of those manipulations. Hundreds of labs are using the technique to explore the neurobiology of phenomena such as decision-making and neurodegenerative diseases, often with remarkable results.
Research shows that if a patient's gastrointestinal tract remains healthy and functioning during chemotherapy treatment, the patient's chances of survival increase exponentially. Recently, scientists discovered a biological mechanism that preserves the gastrointestinal tracts in mice who were delivered lethal doses of chemotherapy.
Male fruit flies have one X chromosome per cell, females have two. So genes on the male X must work twice as hard to produce the same amount of protein as its female counterparts. A research team has found a new switch involved in making this possible.
The seafood contaminant vibrio parahaemolyticus, which cause gastroenteritis and thrives in brackish water during the summer, works like a spy to infiltrate cells and quickly open communication channels to sicken the host, researchers report.
The reason so many spinal cord injuries are permanently disabling is that the human body lacks the capacity to regenerate nerve fibers. Now, new research describes how a protein named P45 may yield insight into a possible molecular mechanism to promote rerouting for spinal cord healing and functional recovery.
Scientists believe the proteins that are targeted by cosmetic surgery treatment Botox could hold the secret to treating and even curing Type 2 diabetes. A team of researchers is using new molecular microscopic techniques on SNARE proteins to solve the mystery of how insulin release is regulated and how this changes during Type 2 diabetes.
The next time your Facebook stream is filled with cat videos, think about Myxococcus xanthus. The single-cell soil bacterium also uses a social network. Using several imaging techniques, scientists saw for the first time that M. xanthus cells are connected by a network of chain-like membranes.The scientists believe M. xanthus uses its network to quietly transfer proteins and other molecules from one to another.
Protein production or translation is tightly coupled to a highly conserved stress response that cancer cells rely on for survival and proliferation, according to researchers. In mouse models of cancer, targeted therapeutic inhibition of translation disrupts this survival response, dramatically slowing tumor growth and potentially rendering drug-resistant tumors vulnerable to other therapies.
New research provides a rare “picture” of the activity taking place at the single molecular level: visual evidence of the mechanisms involved when a cell transports mRNA (or messenger RNA) to where a protein is needed to perform a cellular function.
A newly discovered protein, found in many species, turns out to be the missing link that allows a key regulatory complex to find and operate on the lone X chromosome of male fruit flies, bringing them to parity with females. Called CLAMP, the protein provides a model of how such regulatory protein complexes find their chromosome targets.
Scientists have uncovered the mechanism that controls whether cells that are able to suppress immune responses live or die. The discovery of the cell death processes that determine the number of "regulatory T-cells" an individual has could one day lead to better treatments for immune disorders.
A pair of studies by a team of researchers sheds light on a biological process that is activated across a vast range of malignancies. Wnt proteins are a large family of proteins that activate signaling pathways (a set of biological reactions in a cell) to control several vital steps in embryonic development.