Accumulation of DNA damage can cause aggressive forms of cancer and accelerated aging, so the body’s DNA repair mechanisms are normally key to good health. However, in some diseases the DNA repair machinery can become harmful. Now, scientists have discovered some of the key proteins involved in one type of DNA repair gone awry.
Researchers have discovered how a gene commonly linked to obesity—FTO—contributes to weight gain. The study shows that variations in FTO indirectly affect the function of the primary cilium, a little-understood hair-like appendage on brain and other cells.
A new study revealed how T cells, the immune system's foot soldiers, respond to an enormous number of potential health threats and found surprising similarities in the way immune system defenders bind to disease-causing invaders.
In a discovery at the Children’s Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern (CRI), a research team has taken a significant step in cracking the code of an atypical metabolic pathway that allows certain cancerous tumors to thrive, providing a possible roadmap for defeating such cancers.
Working with mice, researchers report they have identified chemical signals that certain breast cancers use to recruit two types of normal cells needed for the cancers’ spread.
A new theory about disorders that attack the brain and spinal column has received a significant boost from scientists. The theory attributes these disorders to proteins that act like prions, which are copies of a normal protein that have been corrupted in ways that cause diseases.
Researchers have found a new target for treating chronic pain: an enzyme called PIP5K1C. The research shows that PIP5K1C controls the activity of cellular receptors that signal pain.
Scientists have discovered a pair of genes that normally keeps eating schedules in sync with daily sleep rhythms, and, when mutated, may play a role in so-called night eating syndrome.
In surprise findings, scientists have discovered that a protein with a propensity to form harmful aggregates in the body when produced in the liver protects against Alzheimer’s disease aggregates when it is produced in the brain.
3-D printing promises to revolutionize engineering, and many speculate that it could have a huge impact on medicine, too. Many speculate that useful organs grown in the lab three-dimensionally on scaffolds is now closer to fact than fiction.
Blocking a pain receptor in mice not only extends their lifespan, it also gives them a more youthful metabolism, including an improved insulin response that allows them to deal better with high blood sugar.
A type of retina cell plays a more critical role in vision than previously known, a team led by Johns Hopkins University researchers has discovered. Working with mice, the scientists found that the ipRGCs – an atypical type of photoreceptor in the retina – help detect contrast between light and dark, a crucial element in the formation of visual images.
When Associate Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Hyunjoon Kong, graduate student Cartney Smith, and colleagues set out to improve MR imaging (MRI), they turned current contrast agent technology on its head—or rather, they turned it inside out. The new compound they designed in collaboration with Roger Adams Professor of Chemistry Steven C. Zimmerman is not only more effective, but also self-assembling.
A group of 11 genes can successfully predict whether an individual is at increased risk of alcoholism, a research team recently reported. Knowing one has a genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse could encourage behavioral and lifestyle changes.
Experiments creating dangerous flu strains that are transmissible between mammals pose too great a risk to human life from potential release, according to an editorial by Harvard University researchers.
Scientists have shown how switching off a key protein in pancreatic cells slows the spread of the disease to other tissues, a key step which can mean patients have just weeks to live.
Researchers have developed a new cognitive test that can better determine whether memory impairments are due to very mild Alzheimer’s disease or the normal aging process.
A large new Northwestern Medicine study upends our understanding of vitamin E and ties the increasing consumption of supposedly healthy vitamin E-rich oils—canola, soybean and corn—to the rising incidence of lung inflammation and, possibly, asthma.
For anyone searching for another reason to enjoy a glass of red wine with dinner, here’s a good one: A new study has found that red wine, as well as grape seed extract, could potentially help prevent cavities. They say that their report could lead to the development of natural products that ward off dental diseases with fewer side effects.
By comparing how gut microbes from human vegetarians and grass-grazing baboons digest different diets, researchers have shown that ancestral human diets, so called “paleo" diets, did not necessarily result in better appetite suppression. The study reveals surprising relationships between diet and the release of hormones that suppress eating.
High cholesterol levels may impair fertility in couples trying to achieve a pregnancy, according to a new study. Couples in which each partner had a high cholesterol level took the longest time to reach pregnancy, the study showed.
A Stanford electrical engineer has invented a way to wirelessly transfer power deep inside the body and then use this power to run tiny electronic medical gadgets such as pacemakers, nerve stimulators or new sensors and devices yet to be developed.
Perhaps one of the keys to good health isn’t just what you eat but how you taste it. Taste buds may in fact have a powerful role in a long and healthy life – at least for fruit flies. Researchers found that suppressing the animal’s ability to taste its food –regardless of how much it actually eats – can significantly increase or decrease its length of life and potentially promote healthy aging.
Children with progeria, a rare disorder that causes premature aging, die in their teens of ailments that are common in octogenarians: heart failure and stroke. Kan Cao, a University of Maryland assistant professor of cell biology and molecular genetics, urgently wants to help find a cure. Cao and her colleagues have taken a big step in that direction, showing that a toxic protein destroys muscle cells inside the patients’ arteries.
Adolescents with chronic diseases (ACD), such as cystic fibrosis, gastrointestinal disorders (including Crohn’s disease) and Type 1 diabetes, often find the transition of managing their health care needs into adulthood to be challenging. Preparations for this transition are often clinic-based, costly and do not fully or effectively engage with this patient population.