White-bread lovers take heart. Scientists are now reporting that this much-maligned food seems to encourage the growth of some of our most helpful inhabitants — beneficial gut bacteria. In addition to this surprising find, their study also revealed that when looking at effects of food on our “microbiomes,” considering the whole diet, not just individual ingredients, is critical.
Researchers have spotted a strong family trait in two distant relatives: The channels that permit entry of sodium and calcium ions into cells turn out to share similar means for regulating ion intake, they said.
A genomic analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, from 72 patients has uncovered 31 genes that are key to development, growth and spread of the cancer, according to researchers.
Emotional and behavioral problems show up even with low exposure to lead, and as blood lead levels increase in children, so do the problems, according to new research.
The government is expanding its "mystery disease" program, funding a network at six universities around the country to help diagnose patients with diseases so rare they've been told they're undiagnosable. The National Institutes of Health has evaluated hundreds of these cold-case patients in its campus research hospital as part of a pilot program since 2008. Demand is so great, there's a waiting list.
Bone marrow transplants can reverse severe sickle cell disease in adults, a small study by government scientists found, echoing results seen with a similar technique used in children. The researchers and others say the findings show age need not be a barrier and that the technique may change practice for some adult patients when standard treatment fails.
At 21, MS had Jennifer Molson “wheelchair bound.” But since her stem cell transplant, she has worked, driven, danced at her own wedding. The story had a room of 1,000 professional stem cell scientists sniffling loudly at the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) meeting—said sniffling reaching a crescendo when the quiet, pretty Molson concluded: “I’m living proof stem cells can save lives.”
Almost 40 percent of pancreatic cancers– one of the deadliest forms of cancer– could be avoided in the UK through maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking, according to new research.
A discovery by Australian immunologists uncovered an additional role for antibody-making ‘B cells.’ The finding shows that B cells also participate in the development of ‘regulatory T cells.’ Until now, the only non-thymic cells known to educate the regulators were dendritic cells, which travel to the thymus to deliver ‘antigen’, samples of substances toxic to the body. We now know that B cells can do the same thing.
The risk of developing cancer increases with age. Factors like smoking and regular aspirin use also affect the risk of cancer—although in the opposite sense. Researchers from the University of Basel were now able to show that aspirin use and smoking both influence aging processes of the female genome that are connected to colorectal cancer.
The evolution of the ribosome, a large molecular structure found in the cells of all species, has been revealed in unprecedented detail in a new study.
Engineers and neuroscientists have developed a method to measure the response of an individual neuron to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the brain. The advance will help researchers understand the underlying physiological effects of TMS.
Researchers have developed a new supercooling technique to increase the amount of time human organs could remain viable outside the body. This study was conducted in rats, and if it succeeds in humans, it would enable a world-wide allocation of donor organs, saving more lives.
New experiments have identified a compound that might halt the progression of Alzheimer’s by interfering with the role amyloid-beta plays in the formation of blood clots.
Scientists have discovered that obese individuals lack a protein that is essential for regulating blood glucose levels, causing them to face higher risks of developing diabetes.
By looking at the copy of the human genome present in healthy cells, researchers were able to build a picture of each cell's development from the early embryo on its journey to become part of an adult organ.
Optogenetics requires a light source to be implanted in the brain, where it can reach the cells that need to be controlled. Now, engineers have developed the first light-sensitive molecule that enables neurons to be silenced noninvasively, using a light source outside the skull.
By switching off a single gene, scientists have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person's GI tract to produce insulin.
An international research team has solved the mystery of how birds avoid Lassa virus infection, leading to a better understanding of how Lassa virus infects mammals.
Environmental policy must respond to ever-changing conditions on the ground and in the water, but doing so requires a constant flow of information about the living world. Now, scientists propose employing emerging environmental DNA sampling techniques that could make assessing the biodiversity of marine ecosystems as easy as taking a water sample.
Chronic hepatitis C virus infections are among the most common reasons for liver transplants. Because existing viruses also infect the new liver, the immune system is highly active there. Despite this, the new organ is not rejected. The long-term stimulation of the innate immune system by the virus actually increases the probability of tolerance.
The longer a person took low-dose aspirin, the lower their risk for developing pancreatic cancer, according to a recently published study. Men and women who took low-dose aspirin regularly had 48 percent reduction in their risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Protection ranged from 39 percent reduction in risk for those who took low-dose aspirin for six years or less, to 60 percent reduction for those who took it for more than 10 years.
Adults who watch TV for three hours or more each day may double their risk of premature death compared to those who watch less, according to new research.
Bone marrow transplants save thousands of lives but patients are vulnerable to severe viral infections in the months afterward. Now, scientists are developing protection for that risky period — injections of cells specially designed to fend off up to five different viruses at once.
As many patients know, treating wounds has become far more sophisticated than sewing stitches and applying gauze, but dressings still have shortcomings. Now scientists are reporting the next step in the evolution of wound treatment with a material that leads to faster healing than existing commercial dressings and prevents potentially harmful bacteria from sticking.