The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science has targeted research into the common bean because of its importance in enhancing nitrogen use efficiency for sustainability of bioenergy crops, and for increasing plant resilience and productivity with fewer inputs, on marginal lands, and in the face of the changing climate and environment.
Twelve years ago, researchers found that a protein called Set2 plays a role in how yeast genes are expressed– specifically how DNA gets transcribed into messenger RNA. Now, it has been discovered that Set2 is also a major player in DNA repair, a complicated and crucial process that can lead to the development of cancer cells.
New genomic research revealed that two common gene variants that lead to longer telomeres, the caps on chromosome ends thought by many scientists to confer health by protecting cells from aging, also significantly increase the risk of developing the deadly brain cancers known as gliomas.
Scientists have identified problems in a connection between brain structures that may predispose individuals to hearing the “voices” that are a common symptom of schizophrenia. Researchers linked the problem to a gene deletion.
A large new analysis of DNA from thousands of patients has uncovered several underlying gene networks with potentially important roles in autism. These networks may offer attractive targets for developing new autism drugs or repurposing existing drugs that act on components of the networks.
Scientists have discovered that bacteria can reshape their DNA to survive dehydration. The research shows that bacterial DNA can change from the regular double helix to the more compact A-DNA form, when faced with hostile conditions such as dehydration.
Limiting saturated fat could help people whose genetic make-up increases their chance of being obese, according to a new study. The findings could be useful in identifying people who are predisposed to obesity and could ultimately lead to personalized dietary recommendations.
One of the biggest challenges for medical researchers studying the effectiveness of stem cell therapies is that transplants or grafts of cells are often rejected by the hosts. Now, researchers have shown that a new line of genetically modified pigs will host transplanted cells without the risk of rejection.
Christofer Toumazou believes he can change the world with his “one chip, one bug – one chip, one drug,” slogan. Nominated for the European Patent Office’s 2014 European Inventor award, he holds a patent for the technology behind a microchip that can analyze DNA within 30 minutes and without a laboratory.
Correlating levels of mRNA and corresponding proteins within cells provides more information linking gene function to phenotype than examining either alone. Separate measurements of RNA and protein merely provide information about two similar but separate cell populations. The ability to study both in individual cells leads to more physiologically relevant data, including information about cell-to-cell heterogeneity within a given sample.
Britain's fertility regulator says controversial techniques to create embryos from the DNA of three people "do not appear to be unsafe" even though no one has ever received the treatment, according to a new report. Read more...
New research confirms a vulnerability to lung cancer can be inherited and implicates the BRCA2 gene as harboring one of the involved genetic mutations. The study scanned the genomes of more than 11 thousand individuals of European descent to look for common variations associated with non-small cell carcinoma. The analysis showed that variations in the BRCA2 and CHEK2 genes can significantly increase an individual's risk for lung cancer.
Baylor College of Medicine scientists defined a previously unrecognized genetic cause for two types of birth defects found in newborn boys. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias are among the most common birth defects but the causes are usually unknown.
Many people with cystic fibrosis develop diabetes. The reasons for this have been largely unknown, but now researchers have identified a molecular mechanism that contributes to the raised diabetes risk.
A molecule critical to stem cell function plays a major role in determining human hair color, according to a new study. The researchers found that the blond hair is caused by a single change in the DNA that regulates the expression of a gene that encodes a protein called KITLG, also known as stem cell factor.
Duke researchers Peter Larsen, Ryan Campbell and Anne Yoder used high-throughput sequencing on sifaka blood samples to generate sequence data for more than 150,000 different sifaka antibodies -- protective molecules that latch on to bacteria, viruses and other foreign invaders in the body and fight them off before they cause infection.
Researchers identified within animal models an enzyme that links genetic pathways that control aging with the death of dopamine neurons– a clinical hallmark of Parkinson’s disease.
A multicenter team of researchers report that a commercial test designed to rule out the presence of genetic biomarkers of prostate cancer may be accurate enough to exclude the need for repeat prostate biopsies in many— if not most— men.
The overall number and nature of mutations—rather than the presence of any single mutation—influences an individual’s risk of developing schizophrenia, as well as its severity, according to a study by Columbia University Medical Center researchers. The findings could have important implications for the early detection and treatment of schizophrenia.
In an attempt to catalog the human “proteome,” a team of researchers identified 193 novel proteins that came from regions of the genome not predicted to code for proteins.
A genetic variant linked to sudden cardiac death leads to protein overproduction in heart cells, scientists report. The discovery adds to scientific understanding of the causes of sudden cardiac death and of possible ways to prevent it.
Accumulation of DNA damage can cause aggressive forms of cancer and accelerated aging, so the body’s DNA repair mechanisms are normally key to good health. However, in some diseases the DNA repair machinery can become harmful. Now, scientists have discovered some of the key proteins involved in one type of DNA repair gone awry.
Researchers have discovered how a gene commonly linked to obesity—FTO—contributes to weight gain. The study shows that variations in FTO indirectly affect the function of the primary cilium, a little-understood hair-like appendage on brain and other cells.
Australia can no longer lay claim to the origins of the iconic New Zealand kiwi following University of Adelaide research showing the kiwi's closest relative is not the emu as was previously thought. Instead, the diminutive kiwi is most closely related to the extinct Madagascan elephant bird.