Genomic sequencing experts and pharmacologists revealed a striking mutational signature of upper urinary tract cancers caused by aristolochic acid, a plant compound contained in herbal remedies used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments such as arthritis, gout and inflammation.
Some 60 years ago, a doctor in Baltimore removed cancer cells from a poor black patient named Henrietta Lacks without her knowledge or consent. Those cells eventually helped lead to a multitude of medical treatments and lay the groundwork for the multibillion-dollar biotech industry. Now, or the first time, the Lacks family has been given a say over at least some research involving her cells.
A reduced caloric intake increases life expectancy in many species. But how diet prolongs the lives of model organisms, such as fruit flies and roundworms, has remained a mystery- until recently. Scientists discovered that a hormone receptor is one of the links between nutrition and life expectancy in roundworms.
Neurosurgeons from University of California, San Diego are among the first in the world to utilize real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance for delivery of gene therapy as a potential treatment for brain tumors. Using MRI navigational technology, neurosurgeons can inject a novel investigational gene therapy directly into a brain malignancy.
Research suggests that we all smell different smells thanks to our genes. Scientists tested nearly 200 people for their sensitivity to ten different flavors that occur in food and have identified some of the genetic differences that determine an individual’s ability to smell various odors.
Two volunteers who participated in the first public frying of hamburger grown in a lab say that it had the texture of meat but was short of flavor because of the lack of fat. A research team in the Netherlands developed the burger, which was grown in a laboratory from stem cells of cattle.
New research on the genetics of diabetes could one day help women know their risk for developing gestational diabetes before they become pregnant- and lead to preventive measures to protect the health of offspring. Gestational diabetes affects 18 percent of pregnancies but usually disappears when a pregnancy is over.
A new study found that RNA editing is not only regulated by sequences and structures near the editing sites but also by ones found much farther away. One newly discovered structure gives an editing enzyme an alternate docking site. The other appears to throttle competing splicing activity.
Scientists have used the powerful technology of single-cell RNA sequencing to track the genetic development of a human and a mouse embryo at an unprecedented level of accuracy. The technique could lead to earlier and more accurate diagnoses of genetic diseases, even when the embryo consists of only eight cells.
By studying how a virus that infects most people at some point in their lives packages its genetic material during infection, an international collaboration of researchers has made discoveries that help scientists better understand virus-host interactions and may open new avenues for therapies.
With modern surgical techniques increasingly able to save babies born with heart defects, biomedical researchers are hunting for ways to manage the subsequent rising prevalence of congenital heart disease. A research team has discovered a mutation to a gene that is key to cardiac development.
Male fruit flies have one X chromosome per cell, females have two. So genes on the male X must work twice as hard to produce the same amount of protein as its female counterparts. A research team has found a new switch involved in making this possible.
A good state of mind— that is, your happiness— affects your genes, scientists say. In the first study of its kind, researchers examined how positive psychology impacts human gene expression. What they found is that different types of happiness have surprisingly different effects on the human genome.
The chemical components crucial to the start of life on Earth may have primed and protected each other in never-before-realized ways, according to new research. It could mean a simpler scenario for how that first spark of life came about on the planet.
A team of scientists has identified genes that are potential targets for therapeutic drugs against aggressive breast cancer. Out of the 1.5 million women diagnosed with breast cancer in the world annually, nearly one in seven of these is classified as triple negative.
Modern genomics has shown that just one DNA mutation can be the difference between successfully treating a disease and having it spread rampantly throughout the body. Now, researchers have developed a new method that can look at a specific segment of DNA and pinpoint a single mutation.
Researchers have devised a way to quickly and easily target and tinker with any gene in the human genome. The new tool, which builds on an RNA-guided enzyme they borrowed from bacteria, is being made freely available to researchers who may now apply it to the next round of genome discovery.
The discovery of a gene's function in E. coli and other bacteria might lead to a probiotic to prevent the most common type of kidney stone, according to a new study. The team made the discovery during a study of genes in Acetobacter aceti, a harmless bacterium that is typically used to convert wine to vinegar.
Borrowing a tool from molecular biology, researchers have detected a tumor-associated genetic mutation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a small number of patients with brain tumors. The investigators used digital versions of the gene-amplification technology polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze bits of RNA carried in membrane-covered sacs.
Some researchers turn to proteins in bacteria and plants and algae to observe various proteins as a way to develop and optimize tools needed to understand the brain. Now, a research team has brought discoveries from both areas together to create a toolset for controlling and testing the function of genes and other genetic influences in the brain.
In a new paper, a team of researchers show that the pulmonary vasculature, the blood vessels that connect the heart to the lung, develops even in the absence of the lung. Mice in which lung development is inhibited still have pulmonary blood vessels, which revealed that cardiac progenitors, or stem cells, are essential for cardiopulmonary co-development.
Although human cells have an estimated 20,000 genes, only a fraction of those are turned on at any given time, depending on the cell’s needs— which can change by the minute or hour. To find out what those genes are doing, researchers need tools that can quickly manipulate their status. That is now possible, thanks to a technology that can rapidly start or halt the expression of any gene, simply by shining light on the cells.
In a new study, researchers show that the recipe for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is far more versatile than originally thought. For the first time, they have replaced a gene once thought impossible to substitute, creating the potential for more flexible recipes that should speed the adoption of stem cells therapies.
Earlier this year, researchers developed a way to easily and efficiently edit the genomes of living cells. Now, the researchers have discovered key factors that influence the accuracy of the system, an important step toward making it safer for potential use in humans, says the leader of the research team.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergy-associated disease that affects children and adults and is caused by inflammation in response to trigger foods. Researchers have known that genetic mutations in the gene that encodes for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are highly associated with EoE in children. Now, researchers have identified one mechanism by which TSLP might contribute to the development of EoE.