Researchers have discovered why a tiny alteration in a brain gene, found in 20 percent of the population, contributes to the risk for anxiety, depression and memory loss. Their discovery describes new functions for the alteration, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene.
Researchers have shown that a specific protein pair may be a successful prognostic biomarker for identifying smoking-related lung cancers. The protein— ASCL1— is associated with increased expression of the RET oncogene, a particular cancer-causing gene called RET.
A new study reveals a gene that is critical to the process of memory extinction. Enhancing the activity of this gene, known as Tet1, might benefit people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by making it easier to replace fearful memories with more positive associations.
Scientists have achieved a major milestone in understanding how genomic "dark matter" originates. This "dark matter"- called non-coding RNA- comprises more than 95 percent of the human genome, but it does not contain the blueprint, or code, for making proteins.
Some migraine sufferers in Australia won't have to live in the dark much longer. Genetics researchers have just launched a final, Phase 3 clinical trial for a treatment that could drastically reduce symptoms in around 20 percent of sufferers.
In an analysis of 446 compounds for their the ability to boost the innate immune system in humans, researchers discovered just two that stood out from the crowd– the resveratrol found in red grapes and a compound called pterostilbene from blueberries.
A small pilot study shows for the first time that changes in diet, exercise, stress management and social support may result in longer telomeres, the parts of chromosomes that affect aging. It is the first controlled trial to show that any intervention might lengthen telomeres over time.
Neuroscientists have found new evidence that suggests that a failure to repair damaged DNA could underlie not only ALS, but also other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. These findings imply that drugs that bolster neurons’ DNA-repair capacity could help ALS patients.
In a new study, researchers report that mutation of a gene associated with some autism forms in humans can hinder the proper growth and connectivity of brain cells in mice. They also show how that understanding allowed them to restore proper cell growth in the lab.
The level of expression of three genes associated with aging can be used to predict whether seemingly low-risk prostate cancer will remain slow-growing, according to researchers. Using this biomarker could help physicians better determine which men with early prostate cancer should be spared the risks of prostate removal or other invasive treatment.
Researchers have discovered the details of how cells repair breaks in both strands of DNA, a potentially devastating kind of DNA damage. When chromosomes experience double-strand breaks, cells use genetically similar chromosomes to patch the gaps via a mechanism involving both ends of the broken molecules. To repair a broken chromosome, a unique configuration of the DNA replication machinery is deployed.
An international team of scientists led by the UK’s John Innes Centre and including scientists from Australia, Portugal, China and Italy has perfected a way of watching genes move within a living plant cell. Using this technique scientists watched glowing spots, which marked the position of the genes, huddle together in the cold as the genes were switched “off”.
DNA is the blueprint for life. Could it also become the template for making a new generation of computer chips based not on silicon, but on an experimental material known as graphene? That’s the theory behind a process that Stanford chemical engineering professor Zhenan Bao reveals.
For the first time, a genetic link specific to risk of childhood leukemia has been identified, according to a team of researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, University of Washington, and other institutions.
Parents of some Boston-area newborns will have a rare opportunity to have their baby’s DNA completely analyzed as part of the first-ever randomized trial to explore the benefits and risks of genome sequencing (reading the entirety of a person’s DNA) in this age group. The five-year study will assess the baby’s risks of future diseases and how that information affects the baby’s medical care.
Scientists have found a gene in mice that could protect against ovarian cancer and, if faulty, may increase the chance of developing the disease, according to research. This gene, known as Helq, helps repair any damage to DNA that happens when it is copied as cells multiply.
Behavioral abnormalities are traditionally thought to originate in the brain. But a new study has found that inner-ear dysfunction can directly cause neurological changes that increase hyperactivity. The study, conducted in mice, also implicated two brain proteins in this process, providing potential targets for intervention.
Imagine being able to take a drug that can reduce the rate at which you age. New research is making this dream one step closer to reality. A new study provides evidence that aging works through a special set of genes that everyone has: the rDNA genes.
Researchers have identified a compound that dramatically bolsters learning and memory when given to mice with a Down syndrome-like condition on the day of birth. The study reports that the single-dose treatment appears to enable the cerebellum of the rodents’ brains to grow to a normal size.
Researchers have shown that they can turn genes on or off inside yeast and human cells by controlling when DNA is copied into messenger RNA— an advance that could allow scientists to better understand the function of those genes. The technique could also make it easier to engineer cells that can monitor their environment, produce a drug or detect disease.
A genetic mutation that can lead to hemorrhagic stroke has been identified by scientists– along with a drug to potentially treat it. COL4a2 is a protein that is expressed by the gene of the same name, which forms a structure outside the cell called a basement membrane. Scientists have now identified for the first time that accumulation of the mutant protein inside the cell can influence the development of haemorrhagic stroke.
Scientists estimate that there is a minimum of 320,000 viruses in mammals awaiting discovery. Collecting evidence of these viruses, or even a majority of them, they say, could provide information critical to early detection and mitigation of disease outbreaks in humans.
For years, physicians around the world have watched as strain after strain of the deadly bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis evolves resistance to drugs. A new method of analyzing whole genome sequences of TB, applied to a massive set of strains of the bacteria collected from clinics around the world, has revealed 39 new genes associated with elevated drug resistance.
By lowering the expression of a single gene, researchers have extended the average lifespan of a group of mice by about 20 percent— the equivalent of raising the average human lifespan by 16 years, from 79 to 95. The research team targeted a gene called mTOR, which is involved in metabolism and energy balance, and may be connected with the increased lifespan associated with caloric restriction.
A new genome-wide association study (GWAS) estimates the number of different places in the human genome that are involved in schizophrenia. In particular, the study identifies 22 locations, including 13 that are newly discovered, that are believed to play a role in causing schizophrenia.