Modern medicine is largely based on treating patients with “small-molecule” drugs, which include pain relievers like aspirin and antibiotics such as penicillin. Those drugs have prolonged the human lifespan and made many life-threatening ailments treatable, but scientists believe the new approach of nanoscale drug delivery can offer even more progress.
Researchers have discovered a likely origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian carcinoma), the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States.
Scientists have identified patterns of epigenomic diversity that not only allow plants to adapt to various environments, but could also benefit crop production and the study of human diseases.
Olfactory sensory neurons– nerve cells in the nose– directly sense molecules that convey scent, then send the signals to the brain. Biologists have long wondered how it’s possible for each nerve cell to be equipped with only one kind of olfactory receptor (OR).
Geneticists have discovered the oldest known genetic branch of the human Y chromosome– the hereditary factor determining male sex.
GE Healthcare Life Sciences announced Jane Stout, from the United States, Anushree Balachandran, from Australia and Markus Posch, from the UK, as the winners of the GE Healthcare 2012 Cell Imaging Competition.
The gene most strongly linked to obesity and overeating may also increase the risk of malignant melanoma– the most deadly skin cancer, new research reveals.
A group of researchers have mapped the three-dimensional global connections within the brains of seven adults who have genetic malformations that leave them without the corpus callosum, which connects the left and right sides of the brain.
Researchers have achieved a major advance in understanding how genetic information is transcribed from DNA to RNA by providing the first step-by-step look at the biomolecular machinery that reads the human genome.
The largest genetic study of mental illnesses to date finds five major disorders may not look much alike but they share some gene-based risks. The surprising discovery comes in the quest to unravel what causes psychiatric disorders and how to better diagnose and treat them.
Environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread chemical found in plastics and resins, may suppress a gene vital to nerve cell function and to the development of the central nervous system, according to a new study.
While studying a mutant strain of yeast, researchers may have found a new target for drugs to combat cholesterol and fungal diseases.
Previous studies found that smokers with COPD had the most significant decrease in one of the enzymes controlling chemical modifications to DNA, called HDAC2. Now, researchers showed that development of progenitor cells in the lung is specifically regulated by the combined function of two highly related HDACs, HDAC/1 and /2.
When it comes to evolution, humans can learn a thing or two from primeval sea lampreys. A team of scientists has presented an assembly of the sea lamprey genome– the first time the entire sequence has been decoded.
If a genome is the blueprint for life, then the chief architects are tiny slices of genetic material that orchestrate how we are assembled and function, researchers report.
A study combining genetic data with brain imaging, designed to identify genes associated with the amyloid plaque deposits found in Alzheimer’s disease patients, has not only identified the APOE gene- long associated with development of Alzheimer’s- but has uncovered an association with a second gene, called BCHE.
Researchers are exploring an alternate theory for the origin of RNA: They think the RNA bases may have evolved from a pair of molecules distinct from the bases we have today.
A team of researchers has shown that the concept of how the speed of creation affects performance also applies to how a protein they studied impacts circadian clock function.
Digesting lignin, a highly stable polymer that accounts for up to a third of biomass, is a limiting step to producing a variety of biofuels. Researchers have figured out the microscopic chemical switch that allows Streptomyces bacteria to get to work, breaking lignin down into its constituent parts.
Researchers have identified a genetic program that promotes longevity of roundworms in cold environments—and this genetic program also exists in warm-blooded animals, including humans.
Researchers have identified a family of human genes known as Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) that play a key role in the suppression and activation of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Engineers have now built an automated system that can rapidly produce 3-D, micron-resolution images of thousands of zebrafish larvae and precisely analyze their physical traits. The system offers a comprehensive view of how potential drugs affect vertebrates.
Genes linked to autism and schizophrenia are only switched on during the early stages of brain development, according to a new study, which adds to the evidence that autism and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental disorders.
MIT engineers have created genetic circuits in bacterial cells that not only perform logic functions, but also remember the results, which are encoded in the cell’s DNA and passed on for dozens of generations. The circuits could be used as long-term environmental sensors, efficient controls for biomanufacturing, or to program stem cells to differentiate into other cell types.
Many questions arise when two identical twins raised in the same home—fed the same, nurtured the same way—follow disparate paths. How can the identical offspring of a single egg turn out so differently? Scientists ask the same question when genetically identical cells in identical environments—monoclonal cells produced by a single ancestor that replicated—exhibit wildly different behaviors.