Thousands of years ago, a population of Astyanax mexicanus fish in northeastern Mexico swam or was swept from its hospitable river home into harsh underwater caves and became trapped. Facing a dramatically different environment of near total darkness and hardly any food, the fish had to adapt— fast.
While posttraumatic stress is expected after natural disasters, few survivors anticipate the positive psychological changes that they may experience – and now new research has revealed that genes may play a role.
The switches in our epigenome help alter the way our cells act and are impacted by environmental factors including diet, exercise and stress. Research at the Buck Institute reveals that aging also effects the epigenome in human skeletal muscle.
What may be the oldest complete fossil on Earth paints a smelly but colorful picture of our microbial ancestors from nearly 3.5 billion years ago. The fossil is the remains of what once was a purple-and-green slimy, smelly mat of single cell microbes that worked, lived and even communicated together in what is an awful lot like a prehistoric microscopic society.
The first trickle of fuels made from agricultural waste is finally winding its way into the nation's energy supply, after years of broken promises and hype promoting a next-generation fuel source cleaner than oil.
A new study has shown that high concentrations of tungsten– as measured in urine samples– is strongly linked with an increase in the occurrence of stroke, roughly equal to a doubling of the odds of experiencing the condition.
What does it mean to be human? According to scientists the key lies in the billions of lines of genetic code that comprise the human genome. The problem has been deciphering that code. But now, researchers have discovered how the activation of specific stretches of DNA control the development of uniquely human characteristics.
It might seem obvious that humans are elegant and sophisticated beings in comparison to lowly bacteria. But when it comes to genes, a scientist wants to turn conventional wisdom about human and bacterial evolution on its head.
For animal species that cannot be distinguished using their external characteristics, genetic techniques such as DNA barcoding can help to identify cryptic species. Now, an international team of researchers has demonstrated how a bacterial infection can mimic cryptic speciation in butterflies.
Researchers have solved a big piece of the puzzle of how and why multicellular organisms evolved the trait of using single cells to reproduce by applying experimental evolution to transform a single-celled algae into a multicellular one that reproduces by dispersing single cells.
A multi-institutional research team, led by Johns Hopkins engineers, says it has solved the puzzle of why animals push in directions that don’t point toward their goal, like the side-to-side sashaying of a running lizard or cockroach.
A new study clarifies the role of calcium signaling in the medically significant communication between skin cells that occurs during wound healing.
Growing up in poverty can have long-lasting, negative consequences for a child. But for poor children raised by parents who lack nurturing skills, the effects may be particularly worrisome, according to a new study that shows children living in poverty exhibit changes in the brain that can lead to lifelong problems.
Researchers have, for the first time, taken chimpanzee and bonobo skin cells and turned them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a type of cell that has the ability to form any other cell or tissue in the body.
Large areas of vinyl flooring in daycares and schools appear to expose children to a group of compounds called phthalates, which have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems, scientists are reporting.
A study of the full genetic code of a common human virus offers a dramatic confirmation of the "out-of-Africa" pattern of human migration, which had previously been documented by anthropologists and studies of the human genome.
DNA analysis conducted by a British genetics professor suggests that he has solved the mystery of the Abominable Snowman— the elusive ape-like creature of the Himalayas. He thinks it's a bear.
What many commuters choking on smog have long suspected has finally been scientifically validated: air pollution causes lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer declared today that air pollution is a carcinogen.
With estimates of losing 15 to 40 percent of the world’s species over the next four decades– due to climate change and habitat loss, researchers ponder whether science should employ genetic engineering to the rescue. The technique would involve “rescuing a target population or species with adaptive alleles, or gene variants, using genetic engineering,” say the authors of new commentary on the subject.
A recently identified link between a toxic amino acid found in blue-green algae and several motor neuron diseases could help researchers devise a therapy for the fatal conditions. Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), most often associated with nutrient runoff in coastal waters, produce a neurotoxic amino acid called β-methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA.
Average Americans today can look forward to two more years of healthy life than they could have just a generation ago, researchers have found. By synthesizing the data collected in government-sponsored health surveys conducted over recent decades, researchers were able to measure how the quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of Americans has changed over time.
Previously believed to be only man-made, a natural example of a functioning gear mechanism has been discovered in a common insect- showing that evolution developed interlocking cogs long before we did. The juvenile Issus has hind-leg joints with curved cog-like strips of opposing “teeth” that intermesh, rotating like mechanical gears to synchronize the animal’s legs when it launches into a jump.
The citrus flavor and aroma of grapefruit—already used in fruit juices, citrus-flavored beverages, and prestige perfumes and colognes—may be heading for a new use in battling mosquitoes, ticks, head lice and bedbugs thanks to a less expensive way of making large amounts of the once rare and pricey ingredient
Chronic exposure to ground level ozone, a powerful greenhouse gas and a widespread air pollutant in many major cities, is linked to premature death from cardiovascular disease, finds a new study. The analysis also found a strong link between nitrogen dioxide, a marker for traffic pollution, and increased risk of death from lung cancer.
Scientists are reporting “a significant step forward” in proving the feasibility of launching fleets of autonomous robots that search Earth’s deep oceans for exotic new life forms. They describe the successful deployment of the trailblazer for such a project—an autonomous seafloor lander equipped with a mini-laboratory the size of a kitchen trash can that is able to detect minute traces of DNA in the deep ocean.