Researchers have discovered a novel genetic cause of severe obesity which, although relatively rare, demonstrates for the first time that genes can reduce basal metabolic rate.
When we sleep, our brains get rid of gunk that builds up while we're awake, suggests a study that may provide new clues to treat Alzheimer's disease and other disorders.
Examining 12 major types of cancer, scientists have identified 127 repeatedly mutated genes that appear to drive the development and progression of a range of tumors in the body.
For the first time, neuroscientists have observed the neural activity that appears to produce the disordered thinking that causes delusions or hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia.
In the battle against antibiotic resistant bacteria, McMaster researchers have found resistance itself is a successful pathway for discovering new antibiotic drugs. "In essence, we’ve made resistance useful instead of a scary problem," said Gerry Wright, professor and scientific director of the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research.
New research has shown that the stomach naturally produces more stem cells than previously realized, likely for repair of injuries from infections, digestive fluids and the foods we eat.
Researchers who previously identified a major pathway leading to brain cell death in mice, have used an orally-administered compound to block the pathway, and prevented neurodegeneration in the mice.
High levels of HDL have been linked to increased breast cancer risks and to enhanced cancer aggressiveness in animal experiments. Now, a team of researchers has shown that an HDL receptor found on breast cancer cells may be responsible for this effect.
Scientists have discovered, by studying the genetics of two families severely affected by eating disorders, two gene mutations that are associated with increased risk of developing eating disorders.
James Rothman, 62, of Yale University, Randy Schekman, 64, of the University of California, Berkeley, and Dr. Thomas Sudhof, 57, of Stanford University shared the $1.2 million Nobel prize in medicine for discovering how key substances are transported within cells, a process involved in such important activities as brain cell communication and the release of insulin.
Researchers have suggested a new view of how stem cells may help repair the brain following trauma. In a series of preclinical experiments, they report that transplanted cells appear to build a “biobridge” that links an uninjured brain site where new neural stem cells are born with the damaged region of the brain.
Selectively bred strains of laboratory rats that either prefer or avoid alcohol have been a mainstay of alcohol research for decades. Alcohol-preferring rats voluntarily consume much greater amounts of alcohol than do non-preferring rats. Now, scientists report that a specific gene plays an important role in the alcohol-consuming tendencies of both types of rats.
Men who have low testosterone levels may have a slightly elevated risk of developing or dying from heart disease, according to a recent study. Over time, low testosterone may contribute to an increase in body fat, loss of body hair and muscle bulk.
Researchers at MIT have developed a microfluidic device that mimics the process of extravasation, showing the flow of cancer cells through a system of blood vessels. The extravasation process is a crucial step in cancer metastasis that, until now, has been unclear.
In this edition of Bioscience Technology Update: Surgeons Successfully Implant Bioengineered Vein Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Lose Appetite for Humans Bacteria Ingested Through Yogurt Affects Brain Function Young Genes Can Become Essential for Life
New research reveals how a tiny molecule called mir-79 regulates neural development in roundworms by controlling the correct balance of sugar-transmitters on signaling molecules. If mir-79 does not function, the nervous system is malformed.
Scientists have achieved a major milestone in understanding how genomic "dark matter" originates. This "dark matter"- called non-coding RNA- comprises more than 95 percent of the human genome, but it does not contain the blueprint, or code, for making proteins.
The structure of the brain may predict whether a person will suffer chronic low back pain, according to researchers who used brain scans. The results support the growing idea that the brain plays a critical role in chronic pain, a concept that may lead to changes in the way doctors treat patients.
The process of glycosylation, where sugar molecules are attached to proteins, has long been of interest to scientists, particularly because certain sugar molecules are present in very high numbers in cancer cells. It now turns out that these sugar molecules are not only present, but actually aid the growth of the malignant cells.
In a long-awaited finding, a team of Chinese and US scientists has determined the high-resolution atomic structure of a cell-surface receptor that most strains of HIV use to get into human immune cells. The researchers also showed where maraviroc, an HIV drug, attaches to cells and blocks HIV’s entry.
A research team has become the first to make adult cells from a living organism retreat in their evolutionary development to recover the characteristics of embryonic stem cells. They have also discovered that these embryonic stem cells have a broader capacity for differentiation than those obtained via in vitro culture.
Screening older people for minor memory changes (often called mild cognitive impairment or pre-dementia) may be leading to unnecessary investigation and potentially harmful treatment for what is arguably an inevitable consequence of aging, warn experts.
Patrick McGovern is an archaeologist devoted to studying ancient artifacts and trying to piece together their role in advancing civilization. But his specialty is focused on the origins and expansion of the fermentable beverages of early civilizations, which suits him perfectly as the director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.
A genetic mutation that can lead to hemorrhagic stroke has been identified by scientists– along with a drug to potentially treat it. COL4a2 is a protein that is expressed by the gene of the same name, which forms a structure outside the cell called a basement membrane. Scientists have now identified for the first time that accumulation of the mutant protein inside the cell can influence the development of haemorrhagic stroke.
Being short on cash may make you a bit slower in the brain, a new study suggests. People worrying about having enough money to pay their bills tend to lose temporarily the equivalent of 13 IQ points, scientists found when they gave intelligence tests to shoppers at a New Jersey mall and farmers in India.