520 million years ago, the first known animal heart, the heart of an ancient shrimp, was formed. Now, it, and its vascular system, have been found to be more complex than that of modern shrimp, researchers report.
A newly identified genetic disorder associated with degeneration of the central and peripheral nervous systems in humans, along with the genetic cause, has been reported.
The process of metastasis is still poorly understood. Now, a research team has developed a simple test that can reveal the evolutionary relationships among various tumor sites within a patient, information that may someday help with treatment planning.
Scientists have worked together to create tools for observing nerves in living animals that signal between themselves in real time, which will help them understand how those individual signals add up to the complex collection of a person's thoughts and memories.
Researchers say that rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which causes people to act out their dreams, is the best current predictor of brain diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.
Although doctors have long known that people with Down syndrome have a heightened risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during childhood, they haven’t been able to explain why. Now, a team investigators has uncovered a connection between the two conditions.
Researchers have discovered an unexpected phenomenon in the organs that produce sperm in fruit flies: when a certain kind of stem cell is killed off experimentally, another group of non-stem cells can come out of retirement to replace them.
Young adults who used marijuana only recreationally showed significant abnormalities in two brain regions that are important in emotion and motivation. This is the first study to show casual use of marijuana is related to major brain changes.
The more cups of coffee a person drank, the lower the risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, according to new research.
Researchers have succeeded in developing a method fast enough to observe immediate changes in the function of the brain even when watching a movie. When we watch a movie, our brains react to it immediately in a way similar to other people's brains.
In a new study, researchers solved an age-old mystery of touch: how cells just beneath the skin surface enable us to feel fine details and textures.
Riken Institute brass want co-authors of the “acid bath” stem cell papers to retract one, after appeal, citing deliberate misconduct. But two developments may complicate this. First, lead author Haruko Obokata refuses to accept it. And Kenneth Lee has become the first scientist outside the co-authors to publicly claim that, following the latest protocol for acid bath cells, he may have made them.
Through memory loss, unnecessary information in the brain is deleted and the nervous system retains its plasticity. Previously, it was not clear if this process was active or passive, but scientists have now discovered a molecular mechanism that actively regulates the process of forgetting.
In two new studies, the so-called “obesity hormone” leptin and hormones used for birth control are being examined for their potential role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Researchers have another answer to the question of how females can generate so much blood—enough for two blood systems—during pregnancy. The answer is stem cells, as is so often the case lately when a question has something to do with underlying biological mechanisms.
A new bioprinting method creates intricately patterned 3D tissue constructs with multiple types of cells and tiny blood vessels. The work represents a major step toward a longstanding goal of tissue engineers: creating human tissue constructs realistic enough to test drug safety and effectiveness.
Researchers exploring a possible link between metabolic defects and seizures have determined that diet could influence susceptibility to seizures, and they have identified a common diabetes drug that could be a useful treatment.
A new interactive map details the histories of genetic mixing between each of the 95 populations across Europe, Africa, Asia and South America spanning the last four millennia.
For the first time, scientists have identified a gene linking the thickness of the grey matter in the brain to intelligence, which may help scientists understand biological mechanisms behind some forms of intellectual impairment.
CVS Caremark is kicking the habit of selling tobacco products at its more than 7,600 drugstores nationwide as it focuses more on providing health care. The nation's second-largest drugstore chain said Wednesday that it will phase out cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco by Oct. 1, a move that will cost about $2 billion in annual revenue.
A scientific study found that even moderately heavy drinking impairs cognition in middle-aged men. Middle-aged men imbibing more than 2.5 drinks a day saw faster decline in all cognitive areas of their brains over a decade. Indeed, middle-aged men putting back 2.5-plus daily, accumulated almost six (5.7) years of extra cognitive aging.
People who enjoy life maintain better physical function in their daily activities and keep up faster walking speeds as they age, compared with people who enjoy life less, according to a new study.
Exposing skin to sunlight may help to reduce blood pressure by altering levels of the small messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the skin and blood, thus cutting the risk of heart attack and stroke, a new study says.
Whether it's a mug full of fresh-brewed coffee, a cup of hot tea, or a can of soda, consuming caffeine is the energy boost of choice for millions who want to wake up or stay up. Now, researchers at Johns Hopkins University have found another use for the popular stimulant: memory enhancer.