At 21, MS had Jennifer Molson “wheelchair bound.” But since her stem cell transplant, she has worked, driven, danced at her own wedding. The story had a room of 1,000 professional stem cell scientists sniffling loudly at the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) meeting—said sniffling reaching a crescendo when the quiet, pretty Molson concluded: “I’m living proof stem cells can save lives.”
Almost 40 percent of pancreatic cancers– one of the deadliest forms of cancer– could be avoided in the UK through maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking, according to new research.
A discovery by Australian immunologists uncovered an additional role for antibody-making ‘B cells.’ The finding shows that B cells also participate in the development of ‘regulatory T cells.’ Until now, the only non-thymic cells known to educate the regulators were dendritic cells, which travel to the thymus to deliver ‘antigen’, samples of substances toxic to the body. We now know that B cells can do the same thing.
The risk of developing cancer increases with age. Factors like smoking and regular aspirin use also affect the risk of cancer—although in the opposite sense. Researchers from the University of Basel were now able to show that aspirin use and smoking both influence aging processes of the female genome that are connected to colorectal cancer.
Building on previous studies targeting the amygdala, a team of researchers have found that some brain cells recognize emotions based on the viewer's preconceptions rather than the true emotion being expressed.
Engineers and neuroscientists have developed a method to measure the response of an individual neuron to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the brain. The advance will help researchers understand the underlying physiological effects of TMS.
Researchers with Oregon Health & Science University's Vollum Institute have given science a new and unprecedented 3-D view of one of the most important receptors in the brain—a receptor that allows us to learn and remember, and whose dysfunction is involved in a wide range of neurological diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and depression.
The ability of microorganisms to overcome antibiotic treatments is one of the top concerns of modern medicine. The effectiveness of many antibiotics has been reduced by bacteria's ability to rapidly evolve and develop strategies to resist antibiotics. Bacteria achieve this by specific mechanisms that are tailored to the molecular structure or function of a particular antibiotic.
For children, stress can go a long way. A little bit provides a platform for learning, adapting and coping. But a lot of it—chronic, toxic stress like poverty, neglect and physical abuse—can have lasting negative impacts. Researchers recently showed these kinds of stressors, experienced in early life, might be changing the parts of developing children's brains responsible for learning, memory and the processing of stress and emotion.
New experiments have identified a compound that might halt the progression of Alzheimer’s by interfering with the role amyloid-beta plays in the formation of blood clots.
Scientists have discovered that obese individuals lack a protein that is essential for regulating blood glucose levels, causing them to face higher risks of developing diabetes.
Optogenetics requires a light source to be implanted in the brain, where it can reach the cells that need to be controlled. Now, engineers have developed the first light-sensitive molecule that enables neurons to be silenced noninvasively, using a light source outside the skull.
By switching off a single gene, scientists have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person's GI tract to produce insulin.
Signals from the immune system that help repel a common parasite inadvertently can cause a dormant viral infection to become active again, a new study shows. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical significance of the finding, but researchers said the study helps illustrate how complex interactions between infectious agents and the immune system have the potential to affect illness.
Neuroscientists at MIT have shown they can control muscle movement by applying optogenetics—a technique that allows scientists to control neurons’ electrical impulses with light—to the spinal cords of animals that are awake and alert.
A new study has revealed that the gene Metadherin— which is implicated in promoting the spread of breast cancer tumors— only stimulates tumor growth when the protein made by the gene interacts with a second protein known as SND1.
An international research team has solved the mystery of how birds avoid Lassa virus infection, leading to a better understanding of how Lassa virus infects mammals.
In a new study, scientists explain that running, when accompanied by visual stimuli, restored brain function to normal levels in mice that had been deprived of visual experience in early life.
Chronic hepatitis C virus infections are among the most common reasons for liver transplants. Because existing viruses also infect the new liver, the immune system is highly active there. Despite this, the new organ is not rejected. The long-term stimulation of the innate immune system by the virus actually increases the probability of tolerance.
The longer a person took low-dose aspirin, the lower their risk for developing pancreatic cancer, according to a recently published study. Men and women who took low-dose aspirin regularly had 48 percent reduction in their risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Protection ranged from 39 percent reduction in risk for those who took low-dose aspirin for six years or less, to 60 percent reduction for those who took it for more than 10 years.
Figuring out how to survive on a lean-season diet of hard-to-reach ants, slugs and other bugs may have spurred the development of bigger brains and higher-level cognitive functions in the ancestors of humans and other primates, suggests new research.
Adults who watch TV for three hours or more each day may double their risk of premature death compared to those who watch less, according to new research.
Quantifying brain activity through optical imaging has the potential to improve the way the biomedical community treats neurological disorders and brain injuries. To accurately visualize and treat patients who have suffered a stroke, epileptic attack or traumatic brain injury, neuroscientists require precise imaging and measurements of brain activity.
Bone marrow transplants save thousands of lives but patients are vulnerable to severe viral infections in the months afterward. Now, scientists are developing protection for that risky period — injections of cells specially designed to fend off up to five different viruses at once.
As many patients know, treating wounds has become far more sophisticated than sewing stitches and applying gauze, but dressings still have shortcomings. Now scientists are reporting the next step in the evolution of wound treatment with a material that leads to faster healing than existing commercial dressings and prevents potentially harmful bacteria from sticking.