One of every 10 clinical trials for adults with cancer ends prematurely because researchers can't get enough people to test new treatments, scientists report. The surprisingly high rate reveals not just the scope and cost of wasted opportunities that deprive patients of potential advances, but also the extent of barriers such as money, logistics, and even the mistaken fear that people won't get the best care if they join these experiments.
Every time you open your eyes, visual information flows into your brain, which interprets what you’re seeing. Now, for the first time, MIT neuroscientists have noninvasively mapped this flow of information in the human brain with unique accuracy, using a novel brain-scanning technique.
An international team of scientists has discovered that two of the world’s most devastating plagues – the plague of Justinian and the Black Death, each responsible for killing as many as half the people in Europe—were caused by distinct strains of the same pathogen, one that faded out on its own, the other leading to worldwide spread and re-emergence in the late 1800s.
In normal development, all cells turn off genes they don’t need, often by attaching a chemical methyl group to the DNA, a process called methylation. Historically, scientists believed methyl groups could only stick to a particular DNA sequence: a cytosine followed by a guanine, called CpG. But recently they have been found on other sequences, and so-called non-CpG methylation has been found in stem cells, and in neurons in the brain.
A team of researchers at the University of Toronto has discovered a method of assembling “building blocks” of gold nanoparticles as the vehicle to deliver cancer medications or cancer-identifying markers directly into cancerous tumors.
A team of researchers has discovered a protein that is required for the growth of tiny, but critical, hair-like structures called cilia on cell surfaces. The discovery has important implications for human health because lack of cilia can lead to serious diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, blindness, and neurological disorders.
New work from Rice University researchers shows promise for zeroing in on cancer’s core decision network that cancer cells use to decide when to metastasize and invade other parts of the body. This could help in waging ‘a cyber war on cancer.’
High blood pressure can be caused by many things - one of them being a specific mutated protein. Now the researchers at University of Southern Denmark have found out exactly what unfortunate events in the human organism are initiated by the mutated protein.
A study across many cancer types reveals that the universe of cancer mutations is much bigger than previously thought. By analyzing the genomes of thousands of patients’ tumors, a Broad Institute-led research team has discovered many new cancer genes — expanding the list of known genes tied to these cancers by 25 percent.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) scientists have developed a new method to rapidly create much better mouse models for metastatic prostate cancer. This discovery allows scientists to investigate the causes of the disease while at the same time testing new therapeutics to treat it.
Forget being sneezed on: Government scientists are deliberately giving dozens of volunteers the flu by squirting the live virus straight up their noses. It may sound bizarre, but the rare type of research is a step in the quest for better flu vaccines. It turns out that how the body fends off influenza remains something of a mystery.
Scientists have discovered the use of a simple single-celled amoeba to understand the function of human proteins in causing Alzheimer’s disease. The new study reveals how the amoeba will enable a better understanding of the function of these Alzheimer’s disease-associated proteins in the cell without the need for testing on animals.
Scientists have mapped the genetic changes that drive tumors in rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft-tissue cancer, and found that the disease is characterized by two distinct genotypes. The genetic alterations identified in this malignancy could be useful in developing targeted diagnostic tools and treatments for children with the disease.
Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupters, such as bisphenol A, which mimic estrogen, is associated with adverse health effects. Bisphenol A is commonly found in plastic bottles and plastic food containers. New research on the effects of these chemicals on zebrafish shows that embryonic heart valves could be particularly in danger.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists have developed a mathematical model to predict how a patient’s tumor is likely to behave and which of several possible treatments is most likely to be effective. Researchers combined several types of data from pre- and post-treatment biopsies of breast tumors to obtain a molecular picture of how the cancer evolved as a result of chemotherapy.
New research conducted on mice indicates that an early onset of dietary treatment may slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease. According to current understanding, Alzheimer's disease develops slowly and it may take up to 20 years before the first obvious symptoms occur.
Stem cells are the most potent cells in the body. But they can also become, it seems increasingly clear, the most dangerous cells in the body--serving as a biological safe house for HIV. Indeed, the ability of HIV to linger in the body for decades may be due to the simple fact that stem cells live for decades...Then, of course, there's cancer.
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and microRNA 335 are instrumental in helping form differentiated progenitor cells from stem cells. These are organized in germ layers and are thus the origin of different tissue types, including the pancreas and its insulin-producing beta cells.
Columbia University Medical Center researchers identified a gene, called matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), that appears to play a major role in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. The findings, made in mice, explain why most but not all motor neurons are affected by the disease and identify a potential therapeutic target for this still-incurable neurodegenerative disease.
How aging affects communication between neurons is not well understood, a gap that makes it more difficult to treat a range of disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. A new study from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) offers insights into how aging affects the brain’s neural circuitry, in some cases significantly altering gene expression in single neurons.
A new study shows that humans are able to smell sickness in someone whose immune system is highly active within just a few hours of exposure to a toxin. The researchers say there is anecdotal and scientific evidence suggesting that diseases have particular smells.
Although the brain becomes smaller with age, the shrinkage seems to be fast-tracked in older adults with hearing loss, according to the results of a new study.
People with higher levels of the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil may also have larger brain volumes in old age equivalent to preserving one to two years of brain health, according to a new study.
Scientists have discovered that two genes linked to hereditary Parkinson’s disease are involved in the early-stage quality control of mitochondria.