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Can People with Type 2 Diabetes Live Longer?

August 8, 2014 1:26 pm | News | Comments

A large-scale University-led study involving more than 180,000 people shows that patients treated with a drug widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes can live longer than people without the condition. The findings indicate that a drug known as metformin, used to control glucose levels in the body and already known to exhibit anticancer properties, could offer prognostic and prophylactic benefits to people without diabetes.

Cell Signaling Pathway Linked to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

August 8, 2014 1:19 pm | News | Comments

A Purdue University study shows that Notch signaling, a key biological pathway tied to development and cell communication, also plays an important role in the onset of obesity and Type 2 diabetes, a discovery that offers new targets for treatment.

Slowing Brain Functions Linked to Increased Risk of Stroke, Death

August 8, 2014 1:09 pm | News | Comments

Cognitive abilities such as memory and attention are not only important after a stroke but also before. Previous studies have shown poor cardiovascular health can increase the risk of cognitive impairment such as problems in memory and learning. However, the opposite idea that cognitive impairment may impact cardiovascular health, specifically stroke, was not established before.

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WHO: Ebola Outbreak is a Public Health Emergency

August 8, 2014 3:21 am | by Maria Cheng - AP Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

The World Health Organization on Friday declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa to be an international public health emergency that requires an extraordinary response to stop its spread. The WHO announced the Ebola outbreak — the largest and longest in history — is worrying enough to merit being declared an international health emergency. WHO declared similar emergencies for the swine flu pandemic in 2009 and for polio in May.

Cell Mechanics May Hold Key to How Cancer Spreads and Recurs

August 7, 2014 2:34 pm | News | Comments

Cancer cells that break away from tumors to go looking for a new home may prefer to settle into a soft bed. Some particularly enterprising cancer cells can cause a cancer to spread to other organs, called metastasis, or evade treatment to resurface after a patient is thought to be in remission. A team found that these so-called tumor-repopulating cells may lurk quietly in stiffer cellular environments, but thrive in a softer space.

Largest Cancer Genetic Analysis Reveals New Way of Classifying Cancer

August 7, 2014 2:24 pm | News | Comments

Researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have completed the largest, most diverse tumor genetic analysis ever conducted, revealing a new approach to classifying cancers. The work not only revamps traditional ideas of how cancers are diagnosed and treated, but could also have a profound impact on the future landscape of drug development.

Part of the Brain Stays "Youthful" into Older Age

August 7, 2014 1:52 pm | News | Comments

At least one part of the human brain may be able to process information the same way in older age as it does in the prime of life, according to new research conducted at the University of Adelaide. A study compared the ability of 60 older and younger people to respond to visual and non-visual stimuli in order to measure their "spatial attention" skills.

Nasal Test Accurately Diagnoses Human Prion Disease

August 7, 2014 9:57 am | News | Comments

A nasal brush test can rapidly and accurately diagnose Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), an incurable and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disorder, according to a new study.                     

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Low Vitamin D Ups Dementia Risk, Study Says

August 7, 2014 9:51 am | News | Comments

In the largest study of its kind, researchers suggests that in older people, not getting enough vitamin D may double the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.                      

FDA Warns of Infection-causing Tattoo Inks

August 7, 2014 3:23 am | by Mary Clare Jalonick - Associated Press - Associated Press | News | Comments

Thinking about getting inked? Check the bottle first. The Food and Drug Administration is warning tattoo parlors, their customers and those buying at-home tattoo kits that not all tattoo ink is safe.               

New Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Risk

August 6, 2014 5:23 pm | by Marilynn Marchione - AP Chief Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

It's long been known that faulty BRCA genes greatly raise the risk for breast cancer. Now, scientists say a more recently identified, less common gene - called PALB2 - can do the same.                 

Bioscience Technology This Week #5: Protein Hub Crucial to Brain Development

August 6, 2014 2:27 pm | Videos | Comments

In this episode of Bioscience Technology This Week, News Editor Christina Jakubowski highlights the role of the protein GSK-3 in brain development and also reports that running, regardless of duration or speed, reduces death risk.      

Researchers Boost Insect Aggression by Altering Brain Metabolism

August 6, 2014 1:36 pm | Videos | Comments

Scientists report they can crank up insect aggression simply by interfering with a basic metabolic pathway in the insect brain. Their study, of fruit flies and honey bees, shows a direct, causal link between brain metabolism (how the brain generates the energy it needs to function) and aggression.

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Scientists Uncover New Clues to Repairing Injured Spinal Cord

August 6, 2014 1:19 pm | News | Comments

Frogs, dogs, whales, snails can all do it, but humans and primates can't. Regrow nerves after an injury, that is— while many animals have this ability, humans don't. But now, new research suggests that a small molecule may be able to convince damaged nerves to grow and effectively rewire circuits.

Some Saturated Fatty Acids May Carry Bigger Risk Than Others

August 6, 2014 1:08 pm | News | Comments

The relationship between saturated fat and type 2 diabetes may be more complex than previously thought, according a study that claims saturated fatty acids can be associated with both an increased and decreased risk of developing the disease, depending on the type of fatty acids present in the blood.

Lasers, Nanotubes Help to Look Inside Living Brains

August 6, 2014 12:40 pm | News | Comments

A team of scientists has developed an entirely non-invasive technique that provides a view of blood flow in the brain. The tool could provide powerful insights into strokes and possibly Alzheimer's disease.             

Creating New Immune Systems for HIV Patients

August 5, 2014 2:52 pm | by Cynthia Fox | Blogs | Comments

There is good news in attempts to halt HIV by growing, in patients, new immune systems lacking a gene that led to the first—and only—cured HIV patient. Using hematopoietic (blood) stem cells possessing a CCR5 gene mutation that blocks CD4 T cell entry of HIV, Calimmune—led by Nobel Laureate David Baltimore—has, for one year, safely begun growing new immune systems in patients.

Eating Baked or Broiled Fish Weekly Boosts Brain Health

August 5, 2014 2:43 pm | News | Comments

Eating baked or broiled fish once a week is good for the brain, regardless of how much omega-3 fatty acid it contains, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The findings add to growing evidence that lifestyle factors contribute to brain health later in life.

Study Predicts Hepatitis C Will Become a Rare Disease in 22 Years

August 5, 2014 2:06 pm | News | Comments

Effective new drugs and screening would make hepatitis C a rare disease by 2036, according to a computer simulation conducted by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.

New DNA Analysis Technique Promises Speedier Diagnosis

August 5, 2014 2:01 pm | News | Comments

Researchers have achieved a technical breakthrough that should result in speedier diagnosis of cancer and various pre-natal conditions. The key discovery lies in a new tool that allows researchers to load long strands of DNA into a tunable nanoscale imaging chamber in ways that maintain their structural identity and under conditions that are similar to those found in the human body.

Obesity Paradox in Survival from Sepsis

August 5, 2014 1:51 pm | News | Comments

University of Michigan Health System researchers revealed an obesity paradox among older Americans suffering from sepsis. In a study of 1,404 Medicare beneficiaries, heavier patients were more likely to survive the life-threatening infection that can lead to a stay in a hospital’s intensive care unit.

Smart Bacteria Help Each Other Survive

August 5, 2014 1:47 pm | News | Comments

The body’s assailants are cleverer than previously thought. New research from Lund University in Sweden shows for the first time how bacteria in the airways can help each other replenish vital iron. The bacteria thereby increase their chances of survival, which can happen at the expense of the person’s health.

DNA Modifications Predict Brain’s Threat Response

August 4, 2014 1:01 pm | News | Comments

The tiny addition of a chemical mark atop a gene that is well known for its involvement in clinical depression and posttraumatic stress disorder can affect the way a person’s brain responds to threats, according to a new study.       

New Genetic Risk Markers Found in Pancreatic Cancer

August 4, 2014 12:46 pm | News | Comments

A large DNA analysis of people with and without pancreatic cancer has identified several new genetic markers that signal increased risk of developing the highly lethal disease, scientists report.               

Chili Pepper Chemical May Inhibit Gut Tumors

August 4, 2014 12:35 pm | News | Comments

Researchers report that dietary capsaicin– the active ingredient in chili peppers– produces chronic activation of a receptor on cells lining the intestines of mice, triggering a reaction that ultimately reduces the risk of colorectal tumors.   

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