Genome sequencing of head and neck cancers may quickly—and soon—spur new therapies. There are 20 tumor types being studied by the massive, $100 million Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the eighth to be unveiled. The first, glioblastoma, has been cited in a whopping 2000-plus manuscripts.
Combining two biological approaches, a research team from University of Michigan broke down the...
Two years after Japan’s nuclear plant disaster, an international team of experts said that...
A new method of measuring the variety of genetic mutations found in cells within a tumor appears to predict treatment outcomes of patients with the most common type of head and neck cancer. The research describes how a new way of measuring tumor heterogeneity was a better predictor of survival than are most traditional risk factors in a small group of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
People who have non-melanoma skin cancer may be less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease, according to new research. The study showed that individuals with skin cancer were nearly 80 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease compared with people who did not have skin cancer. No such association was found with other types of dementia, such as vascular dementia.
A soon-to-be-tested class of drug inhibitors were predicted to help a limited number of patients with B-cell lymphomas with mutations affecting the EZH2 protein. However, a research team now reports that these agents may, in fact, help a much broader cross section of lymphoma patients.
When cells suffer too much DNA damage, they are usually forced to undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, cancer cells often ignore these signals, flourishing even after chemotherapy drugs have ravaged their DNA. A new finding may offer a way to overcome that resistance.
A new, first-of-its-kind meta-analysis looking at the genomes of more than 13,000 men identified four new genetic variants associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer, the most commonly diagnosed type in young men today. The discovery of these genetic variations could ultimately help researchers better understand which men are at high risk and allow for early detection or prevention of the disease.
Very little has been known about the epigenetic events that occur prior to the invasive growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and their spread to other parts of the body, or metastasis. Researchers discovered what could be a crucial step toward understanding the process that activates the cancer cells.
Approximately 90 percent of cancers start within tissues that form the inner linings of various organs. Decades of accumulated genetic mutations can, on occasion, induce cells specialized for growth in one-cell deep sheets to form disordered clumps that eventually become tumors.
The body's own immune system’s fight against breast cancer is controlled by genetic "fine tuners," known as microRNAs, according to a new study. Looking at 1,300 breast cancer samples, scientists found that the influence of these microRNAs, which help control how genes behave, varies between different subtypes of breast cancer.
A single antibody could be the key to treating multiple myeloma, or cancer of the blood, currently without cure or long-term treatment. Using a "biological library" of thousands of antibodies, researchers singled out antibody BI-505, shown to have a powerful effect on the tumor cells.
Cancer chemotherapy can cause peripheral neuropathy—nerve damage often resulting in pain and muscle weakness in the arms and legs. Now, researchers have discovered that chemo also induces an insidious type of nerve damage inside bone marrow that can cause delays in recovery after bone marrow transplantation.
Researchers have identified a gene that, when repressed in tumor cells, puts a halt to cell growth and a range of processes needed for tumors to enlarge and spread to distant sites, in hope that this so-called “master regulator” gene may be the key to developing a new treatment for tumors resistant to current drugs.
By tracking changes in patients’ blood, scientists have created a new way of looking at how tumors evolve in real-time and develop drug resistance. The research used traces of tumor DNA, known as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), found in cancer patients’ blood to follow the progress of the disease as it changed over time and developed resistance to chemotherapy treatments.
A team of researchers has identified virtually all of the major mutations that drive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a fast-growing blood cancer in adults that often is difficult to treat. The findings pave the way for developing better treatments for AML based on the genetic profile of a patient’s cancer.
For the first time, researchers have managed to obtain detailed images of the way in which the transport protein GLUT transports sugars into cells. Since tumours are highly dependent on the transportation of nutrients in order to be able to grow rapidly, the researchers are hoping that the study will form the basis for new strategies to fight cancer cells.
Being pregnant while young is known to protect a women against breast cancer. But why? New research finds that Wnt/Notch signalling ratio is decreased in the breast tissue of mice which have given birth, compared to virgin mice of the same age.
A team of student researchers and their professors from 20 laboratories around the country are seeing a new view of cancer cells. The work could shed light on the transforming physical properties of these cells as they metastasize. Metastasis is a critical step in the progression of cancer– a period when the cancer spreads from one organ, or part, to another.
Drinking coffee could decrease the risk of breast cancer recurring in patients taking the widely used drug Tamoxifen, a study has found. Patients who took the pill, along with two or more cups of coffee daily, reported less than half the rate of cancer recurrence.
Scientists have discovered why a particular cancer drug is so effective at killing cells. Their findings could be used to aid the design of future cancer treatments. Using high-powered laser-based microscopes, researchers made videos of the process by which rituximab binds to a diseased cell and then attracts white blood cells known as natural killer (NK) cells to attack.
By using swarms of untethered grippers, each as small as a speck of dust, engineers and physicians say they have devised a new way to perform biopsies that could provide a more effective way to access narrow conduits in the body as well as find early signs of cancer or other diseases.
Tamoxifen is a time-honored breast cancer drug used to treat millions of women with early-stage and less-aggressive disease. Now, a team of researchers has shown how to exploit tamoxifen’s secondary activities so that it might work on more aggressive breast cancer.
Pluripotent stem cells can turn, or differentiate, into any cell type in the body, such as nerve, muscle or bone, but inevitably some of these stem cells fail to differentiate and end up mixed in with their newly differentiated daughter cells.
Researchers have developed a therapy for pancreatic cancer that uses Listeria bacteria to selectively infect tumor cells and deliver radioisotopes into them. The experimental treatment dramatically decreased the number of metastases (cancers that have spread to other parts of the body) in a mouse model of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer without harming healthy tissue.
A massive study analyzing gene expression data from 22 tumor types has identified multiple metabolic expression changes associated with cancer. The analysis also identified hundreds of potential drug targets that could cut off a tumor’s fuel supply or interfere with its ability to synthesize essential building blocks.
The popularity of Big Data projects was highly evident at the April 6-10 American Association of Cancer Research (AACR) meeting, whose theme was “personalizing cancer care through discovery science.” Session after session featuring TCGA was Standing Room Only (SRO). Washington Convention Center attendants struggled to keep up.
Scientists have revealed how a bacterial enzyme has evolved an energy-efficient method to move long distances along DNA. The findings present further insight into the coupling of chemical and mechanical energy by a class of enzymes called helicases, a widely-distributed group of proteins, which in human cells are implicated in some cancers.