Often deadly “triple-negative” breast cancers might be effectively treated in many cases with a drug that targets a previously unknown vulnerability in the tumors, according to a new study. Researchers found blocking cystine from entering triple-negative breast cancer cells can significantly inhibited their growth in culture and when the cancer cells were transplanted into mice.
Researchers can now identify DNA regions within non-coding DNA, the major part of the genome that is not translated into a protein, where mutations can cause diseases such as cancer. Their approach reveals many potential genetic variants within non-coding DNA that drive the development of a variety of different cancers.
Postmenopausal women who were very active or walked for at least seven hours a week had a reduced risk for breast cancer, according to a study. This is the first study to report a lower risk for breast cancer among this demographic associated specifically with walking.
Cancerous tumors can shed cells that travel through the blood stream and create new cancerous growths. These seed cells can be very difficult to detect, but scientists are developing a noninvasive method using a mini-microscope that could find these cells.
Researchers have added a new layer of information to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia related to the proteins around which DNA gets wrapped in the cell. This proteomics technique points the way to a potential drug target for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Scanning the DNA of nearly 5,000 tumor samples, a team of scientists has identified 140 regions of scrambled genetic code believed to contain many undiscovered cancer genes. The researchers said the mapping of the abnormal regions gives cancer scientists a starting point from which to search for as-yet undiscovered oncogenes and broken tumor-suppressor genes.
Like the plastic caps at the end of shoelaces, telomeres protect- in their case- the interior-gene containing parts of chromosomes that carry a cell's instructional material. Cancer cells are known to have short telomeres, but just how short they are from cancer cell to cancer cell may be a determining factor in a prostate cancer patient's prognosis, according to a new study.
A joint research team is developing a new breast cancer screening technique that has the potential to reduce false positives, and, possibly, minimize the need for invasive biopsies. The new MRI device could improve both the process and accuracy of breast cancer screening by scanning for sodium levels in the breast.
This week, researchers announced that they had identified some rules that apply across cancers for a specific type of genetic mutation– somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). SCNAs are deletions or duplications of certain regions of the genome, and are some of the most common mutations that occur in cancer.
Here’s some news worth spreading: Girls who eat more peanut butter could improve their breast health later in life. Research shows that girls ages 9 to 15 who regularly ate peanut butter or nuts were 39 percent less likely to develop benign breast disease by age 30.
“Incredibly valuable,” is how Barrett Rollins, Chief Scientific Officer of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, describes his hospital’s unprecedented Profile program. In that program, the largest of its kind, all adult cancer patients at two Boston hospitals—Dana Farber and Brigham Women’s—are offered some of the most extensive, next-generation-sequencing (NGS) testing in existence.
Abiraterone acetate, a recently FDA-approved drug used to treat men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and marketed as Zytiga, significantly delays progression of pain and quality of life deterioration when taken in conjunction with prednisone. The design of the study emphasized the importance of patient reported-outcomes in evaluating new treatments.
Scientists have identified a molecular pathway that seems to contribute to the ability of malignant glioma cells in a brain tumor to spread and invade previously healthy brain tissue. Researchers says the findings provide new drug-discovery targets to rein in the ability of these cells to move.
Working with mice, researchers have discovered that weeks of treatment with a repurposed FDA-approved drug halted the growth of— and ultimately left no detectable trace of— brain tumor cells taken from adult human patients. The scientists targeted a mutation in the IDH1 gene first identified in human brain tumors called gliomas by a team cancer researchers in 2008.
Working with cells in test tubes and in mice, researchers have discovered that a chemical commonly used as a dog food preservative may prevent the kind of painful nerve damage found in the hands and feet of four out of five cancer patients taking the chemotherapy drug Taxol.
Researchers have shown that a specific protein pair may be a successful prognostic biomarker for identifying smoking-related lung cancers. The protein— ASCL1— is associated with increased expression of the RET oncogene, a particular cancer-causing gene called RET.
Researchers at MIT have developed a microfluidic device that mimics the process of extravasation, showing the flow of cancer cells through a system of blood vessels. The extravasation process is a crucial step in cancer metastasis that, until now, has been unclear.
According to a large, long-term study, 40 percent of all colorectal cancers might be prevented if people underwent regular colonoscopy screening. The new research also supports existing guidelines that recommend that people with an average risk of colorectal cancer should have a colonoscopy every 10 years.
A research team has shown scientifically what many women report anecdotally: that the breast cancer drug tamoxifen is toxic to cells of the brain and central nervous system, producing mental fogginess similar to “chemo brain.” The researchers also report they’ve discovered an existing drug compound that appears to counteract or rescue brain cells from the adverse effects of the breast cancer drug.
Researchers have discovered a new mechanism involving p53, the famous tumor suppressor, to fight against aggressive cancers. This strategy works by sabotaging the ability of the cancer cells to hide from the immune system. The research opens a new avenue to improve targeted cancer therapy by harnessing the body’s own immune system to control and eliminate cancer cells.
Scientists have found a way to make dramatic improvements to the cancer cell-killing power of vinblastine, one of the most successful chemotherapy drugs of the past few decades. The team’s modified versions of vinblastine showed 10 to 200 times greater potency than the clinical drug.
Most cancer drugs try to treat the disease by killing fast-growing cells, but another approach called immunotherapy tries to stimulate a person’s own immune system to attack the cancer itself. In a new study, scientists have developed a strategy to slow tumor growth and prolong survival in mice with cancer by targeting and destroying a type of cell that dampens the body’s immune response to cancer.
The process of glycosylation, where sugar molecules are attached to proteins, has long been of interest to scientists, particularly because certain sugar molecules are present in very high numbers in cancer cells. It now turns out that these sugar molecules are not only present, but actually aid the growth of the malignant cells.
The level of expression of three genes associated with aging can be used to predict whether seemingly low-risk prostate cancer will remain slow-growing, according to researchers. Using this biomarker could help physicians better determine which men with early prostate cancer should be spared the risks of prostate removal or other invasive treatment.
Terahertz radiation, the technology that peeks underneath clothing at airport security screening check points, has great potential for looking underneath human skin to diagnose cancer at its earliest and most treatable stages, according to new research.