Researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have completed the largest, most diverse tumor genetic analysis ever conducted, revealing a new approach to classifying cancers. The work not only revamps traditional ideas of how cancers are diagnosed and treated, but could also have a profound impact on the future landscape of drug development.
It's long been known that faulty BRCA genes greatly raise the risk for breast cancer. Now, scientists say a more recently identified, less common gene - called PALB2 - can do the same.
Researchers have achieved a technical breakthrough that should result in speedier diagnosis of cancer and various pre-natal conditions. The key discovery lies in a new tool that allows researchers to load long strands of DNA into a tunable nanoscale imaging chamber in ways that maintain their structural identity and under conditions that are similar to those found in the human body.
A large DNA analysis of people with and without pancreatic cancer has identified several new genetic markers that signal increased risk of developing the highly lethal disease, scientists report.
Researchers report that dietary capsaicin– the active ingredient in chili peppers– produces chronic activation of a receptor on cells lining the intestines of mice, triggering a reaction that ultimately reduces the risk of colorectal tumors.
In what is believed to be the largest genetic analysis of what triggers and propels progression of tumor growth in a common childhood blood cancer, researchers report that they have identified a possible new drug target for treating the disease.
Just as no two people possess the same genetic makeup, a recent study has shown that no two single tumor cells in breast cancer patients have an identical genome.
The best way to cure most cases of cancer is to surgically remove the tumor. The Achilles heel of this approach, however, is that the surgeon may fail to extract the entire tumor, leading to a local recurrence. With a new technique, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have established a new strategy to help surgeons see the entire tumor in the patient, increasing the likelihood of a positive outcome.
Stop sunbathing and using indoor tanning beds, the acting U.S. surgeon general warned in a report released Tuesday that cites an alarming 200 percent jump in deadly melanoma cases since 1973.
When cancers spread into the bloodstream, they often take on different characteristics, requiring different therapies. But it is hard to find these rare blood-borne cells. So, relapsed patients often do not get personalized care. Now, researchers have come up with a solution that zeros in on elusive circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
Researchers have identified a mechanism that overrides the cells’ warning signals, enabling cancers to continue to divide even without a robust blood supply.
In a massive effort to catalog the molecular causes of stomach cancer, scientists have identified four subtypes of tumors based on shared mutations and other molecular abnormalities.
Exposure to light at night, which shuts off nighttime production of the hormone melatonin, renders breast cancer completely resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used breast cancer drug, says a new study by Tulane University School of Medicine cancer researchers.
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has expressed concern that the proposed EU General Data Protection Regulation could make cancer research impossible and add a significant burden to both doctors and cancer patients.
Viruses designed to target and kill cancer cells could boost the effectiveness of chemotherapy to the arms and legs and help avoid amputation. Scientists tested the effectiveness of a genetically engineered version of the virus used to vaccinate against smallpox. They found use of the virus alongside isolated limb perfusion chemotherapy was more effective in rats than either treatment on its own.
In an analysis of metabolites used by the body to make fuel in normal and cancerous cells in human kidney tissue, a research team identified an enzyme that is key to applying the brakes on tumor growth.
Scientists at the Salk Institute have identified a gene responsible for stopping the movement of cancer from the lungs to other parts of the body, indicating a new way to fight one of the world's deadliest cancers. By identifying the cause of this metastasis—which often happens quickly in lung cancer and results in a bleak survival rate—Salk scientists are able to explain why some tumors are more prone to spreading than others.
Researchers have uncovered a genetic vulnerability of cancer cells that express telomerase— an enzyme that drives their unchecked growth— and showed that telomerase-expressing cells depend upon a gene named p21 for their survival.
In recent years, aggressive research and substantial financial investments have been directed at discovering pre-symptomatic indicators of cancer, known as biomarkers. But as lead author researchers at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute emphasize in a new study, the quest for cancer biomarkers has been stymied by a number of factors. They describe a new technique for early disease detection, which they call immunosignaturing.
Scientists at the University of East Anglia have shown how the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis could reduce tumor growth in cancer patients. Research reveals the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms which are responsible for the drug’s success in shrinking tumors. It is hoped that the findings could help develop a synthetic equivalent with anti-cancer properties.
Bowel cancer patients with high levels of vitamin D in their blood are more likely to survive the disease, a new study shows. Patients with the highest levels of vitamin D have half the risk of dying compared with those with the lowest levels, the findings reveal.
Researchers have identified novel mutations in a well-known cancer-causing pathway in lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of lung cancer. Knowledge of these genomic changes may expand the number of possible therapeutic targets for this disease and potentially identify a greater number of patients with treatable mutations because many potent cancer drugs that target these mutations already exist.
Mice exposed to low doses of arsenic in drinking water, similar to what some people might consume, developed lung cancer, researchers have found. Arsenic is present in the environment as a naturally occurring substance or due to contamination from human activity.
A breakthrough discovery into how living cells process and respond to chemical information could help advance the development of treatments for a large number of cancers and other cellular disorders that have been resistant to therapy. An international collaboration of researchers unlocked the secret behind the activation of the Ras family of proteins.
Insights into how cells move through the body could lead to innovative techniques to stop cancer cells from spreading and causing secondary tumors, according to new UCL research. Scientists discovered that cells can change into an invasive, liquid-like state to readily navigate the narrow channels in our body.