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Nuclear Stiffness Keeps Stem Cells and Cancer Cells in Place

February 26, 2014 1:50 pm | News | Comments

Adult stem cells and cancer cells have many things in common, including an ability to migrate through tiny gaps in tissue. Both types of cells also experience a trade-off when it comes to this ability; having a flexible nucleus makes migration easier but is worse at protecting the nucleus’ DNA compared to a stiffer nucleus.

A Paper Diagnostic for Cancer

February 25, 2014 2:16 pm | News | Comments

MIT engineers have developed a simple, cheap, paper test that could improve diagnosis rates and help people get treated earlier. The diagnostic, which works much like a pregnancy test, could reveal within minutes, based on a urine sample, whether a person has cancer.

Building a Better Mouse (Model) to Study Pancreatic Cancer

February 25, 2014 2:09 pm | News | Comments

Researchers report two breakthroughs in understanding lesions in the pancreas and its ducts and their role in pancreatic cancer: the development of the first mouse model that simulates a precursor lesion called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN), and the identification of an enzyme, Brg1, that appears to help cause the formation of IPMN lesions while also suppressing another precursor lesion.

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Researchers Devise a Fast and Effective Mechanism to Combat Ovarian Cancer

February 24, 2014 12:37 pm | News | Comments

Ovarian cancer accounts for more deaths of American women than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. A researcher has proposed a new strategy to tackle an aggressive subtype of ovarian cancer using a new nanoscale drug-delivery system designed to target specific cancer cells.

Dismantling Pancreas Cancer’s Armor

February 21, 2014 12:07 pm | News | Comments

Pancreas cancer is notoriously impervious to treatment and resists both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It has also been thought to provide few targets for immune cells, allowing tumors to grow unchecked. But new research shows that pancreas cancer “veils” itself from the immune system by recruiting specialized immune suppressor cells.

Thyroid Cancer Cases Soar; Is It Overdiagnosed?

February 20, 2014 4:08 pm | by Lindsey Tanner - AP Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

A dramatic rise in thyroid cancer has resulted from overdiagnosis and treatment of tumors too small to ever cause harm, according to a study that found cases nearly tripled since 1975. The study is the latest to question whether all cancers need aggressive treatment.

Gene Sequencing Project Discovers Common Driver of a Childhood Brain Tumor

February 20, 2014 1:28 pm | News | Comments

The St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital-Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project has identified the most common genetic alteration ever reported in the brain tumor ependymoma and evidence that the alteration drives tumor development. The results provide a foundation for new research to improve diagnosis and treatment of ependymoma, the third most common brain tumor in children.

Cell Behavior in Low Oxygen Conditions Mapped

February 20, 2014 12:09 pm | News | Comments

Research at the University of Liverpool has explained how cells behave when placed in a low oxygen environment, a development that could have implications for cancer patients and other serious illnesses. The research opens up the possibility of controlling the signals that keep cells alive, preventing the damages caused by ischemia—a restriction of blood supply to tissues. It could also work to help destroy cancer cells.

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Scientists Develop Gene Test to Accurately Classify Brain Tumors

February 19, 2014 1:21 pm | News | Comments

Scientists at The Wistar Institute have developed a mathematical method for classifying forms of glioblastoma, an aggressive and deadly type of brain cancer, through variations in the way these tumor cells “read” genes. Their system was capable of predicting the subclasses of glioblastoma tumors with 92 percent accuracy. With further testing, this could enable physicians to predict which forms of therapy would most benefit their patients.

Epigenetic Regulation Required to Ensure Correct Number of Chromosomes

February 18, 2014 1:31 pm | News | Comments

Abnormal number of chromosomes is often associated with cancer development. In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have shown that a subtle epigenetic change plays an important role in the correct segregation of chromosomes.

Grape Seed Promise in Fight Against Bowel Cancer

February 14, 2014 1:09 pm | News | Comments

University of Adelaide research has shown for the first time that grape seed can aid the effectiveness of chemotherapy in killing colon cancer cells as well as reducing the chemotherapy's side effects. The researchers say that combining grape seed extracts with chemotherapy has potential as a new approach for bowel cancer treatment - to both reduce intestinal damage commonly caused by cancer chemotherapy and to enhance its effect.

A Microchip for Metastasis

February 7, 2014 11:32 am | News | Comments

In an attempt to learn how and why certain cancers spread to specific organs, researchers have developed a three-dimensional microfluidic platform that mimics the spread of breast cancer cells into a bonelike environment.         

Split Decision: Stem Cell Signal Linked With Cancer Growth

February 6, 2014 4:48 pm | News | Comments

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a protein critical to hematopoietic stem cell function and blood formation. The finding has potential as a new target for treating leukemia because cancer stem cells rely upon the same protein to regulate and sustain their growth.

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A Microchip for Metastasis

February 6, 2014 11:36 am | News | Comments

Nearly 70 percent of patients with advanced breast cancer experience skeletal metastasis, in which cancer cells migrate from a primary tumor into bone—a painful development that can cause fractures and spinal compression. While scientists are attempting to better understand metastasis in general, not much is known about how and why certain cancers spread to specific organs, such as bone, liver, and lungs.

Study Finds Dramatic Rise in Skin Cancer among Middle-Aged Adults

February 5, 2014 7:16 am | Videos | Comments

A new Mayo Clinic study found that among middle-aged men and women, 40 to 60 years old, the overall incidence of skin cancer increased nearly eightfold between 1970 and 2009. There has been widespread concern in recent years about the rising incidence of melanoma, which affects 75,000 Americans annually and results in nearly 9,000 deaths. Few studies, however, have investigated which age brackets of adults are most at risk.

NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

February 4, 2014 1:30 pm | Videos | Comments

The accumulation of age-associated changes in a biochemical process that helps control genes may be responsible for some of the increased risk of cancer seen in older people, according to a National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study.

Scientists Call for Screening Mammography Every Two Years for Most Women

February 4, 2014 11:57 am | News | Comments

Adoption of new guidelines recommending screening mammography every two years for women ages 50 to 74 would result in breast cancer screening that is equally effective, while saving the United States $4.3 billion a year in health care costs, according to a study led by UC San Francisco.

Red Alert: Body Kills ‘Spontaneous’ Blood Cancers on a Daily Basis

February 3, 2014 11:54 am | News | Comments

Immune cells undergo ‘spontaneous’ changes on a daily basis that could lead to cancers if not for the diligent surveillance of our immune system, scientists have found. The research team from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute found that the immune system was responsible for eliminating potentially cancerous immune B cells in their early stages, before they developed into B-cell lymphomas (also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas).

Liver Tumors Found in Mice Exposed to BPA

February 3, 2014 11:08 am | Videos | Comments

In one of the first studies to show a significant association between BPA and cancer development, University of Michigan School of Public Health researchers have found liver tumors in mice exposed to the chemical via their mothers during gestation and nursing.

Study Finds Why Some Supplements Might Be Risky

January 29, 2014 6:07 pm | by Lauran Neergaard - AP Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

Antioxidant vitamins are assumed to be cancer fighters, although research in smokers found high doses may raise their risk of tumors. A new study may help explain the paradox. Scientists gave antioxidants to mice that had early-stage lung cancer, and watched the tumors multiply and found that the animals died twice as fast as untreated mice. The reason: The extra vitamins apparently blocked one of the body's key cancer-fighting mechanisms.

Doctors: Too Few Cancer Patients Enroll in Studies

January 28, 2014 5:07 pm | by Marilynn Marchione - AP Chief Medical Writer - Associated Press | News | Comments

One of every 10 clinical trials for adults with cancer ends prematurely because researchers can't get enough people to test new treatments, scientists report. The surprisingly high rate reveals not just the scope and cost of wasted opportunities that deprive patients of potential advances, but also the extent of barriers such as money, logistics, and even the mistaken fear that people won't get the best care if they join these experiments.

DNA-built Nanoparticles Safely Target Cancer Tumors

January 28, 2014 1:53 pm | News | Comments

A team of researchers at the University of Toronto has discovered a method of assembling “building blocks” of gold nanoparticles as the vehicle to deliver cancer medications or cancer-identifying markers directly into cancerous tumors. 

Researchers Decode Decision Circuit of Cancer Metastasis

January 28, 2014 1:22 pm | by Skip Derra | Articles | Comments

New work from Rice University researchers shows promise for zeroing in on cancer’s core decision network that cancer cells use to decide when to metastasize and invade other parts of the body. This could help in waging ‘a cyber war on cancer.’

Study Expands the Cancer Genomics Universe

January 27, 2014 1:36 pm | News | Comments

A study across many cancer types reveals that the universe of cancer mutations is much bigger than previously thought. By analyzing the genomes of thousands of patients’ tumors, a Broad Institute-led research team has discovered many new cancer genes — expanding the list of known genes tied to these cancers by 25 percent.

Scientists Develop Powerful New Animal Model for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

January 27, 2014 1:02 pm | News | Comments

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) scientists have developed a new method to rapidly create much better mouse models for metastatic prostate cancer. This discovery allows scientists to investigate the causes of the disease while at the same time testing new therapeutics to treat it.

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