Researchers have identified an important enzyme pathway that helps prevent new cells from receiving too many or too few chromosomes, a condition that has been directly linked to cancer and other diseases.
The process of metastasis is still poorly understood. Now, a research team has developed a simple test that can reveal the evolutionary relationships among various tumor sites within a patient, information that may someday help with treatment planning.
A dream solution to cancer metastasis has been to develop a method that can track and kill the cancer cells that are on the move. The complexity at which those cancer cells operate has long been a formidable obstacle to stopping metastases, which cause 90 percent of cancer deaths, but that may change.
A team of researchers has developed a test that can rapidly assess several DNA repair systems, which could help determine individuals’ risk of developing cancer and help doctors predict how a given patient will respond to chemotherapy drugs.
Most drugs used to treat lung, breast and pancreatic cancers also promote drug-resistance and ultimately spur tumor growth. Researchers have discovered a biomarker called CD61 that appears responsible for inducing tumor metastasis by enhancing the stem cell-like properties of cancer cells.
A single type of cell in the lining of the bladder is responsible for most cases of invasive bladder cancer, according to researchers. This study is the first to pinpoint the normal cell type that can give rise to invasive bladder cancers.
Although doctors have long known that people with Down syndrome have a heightened risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during childhood, they haven’t been able to explain why. Now, a team investigators has uncovered a connection between the two conditions.
The presence of chronic inflammation in benign prostate tissue was associated with high-grade, or aggressive, prostate cancer, and this association was found even in those with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, according to a new study.
Researchers have discovered an unexpected phenomenon in the organs that produce sperm in fruit flies: when a certain kind of stem cell is killed off experimentally, another group of non-stem cells can come out of retirement to replace them.
Size doesn’t matter as long as long as you can get the job done. That said, one may be forgiven the impression that larger molecules—antibodies and related constructs, or T cells themselves being used in immunotherapies—were preferentially presented at American Association of Cancer Research annual conference
Scientists have uncovered a new way the immune system may fight cancers and viral infections. The finding could aid efforts to use immune cells to treat illness. The research, in mice, suggests that some organs have the immunological equivalent of “neighborhood police” – specialized squads of defenders that patrol only one area, a single organ, instead of an entire city, the body.
The potential of immunotherapies drew large interest at this year's American Association for Cancer Research annual meeting. And the new data are particularly striking for their clinical results—reporting once uncommon at this basic research meeting.
It’s long been known that certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cancer. Now, researchers have determined a new way that HPV might spark cancer development– by disrupting the human DNA sequence with repeating loops when the virus is inserted into host-cell DNA as it replicates.
Delivering chemotherapy drugs in nanoparticle form could help reduce side effects by targeting the drugs directly to the tumors. In recent years, scientists have developed nanoparticles that deliver one or two chemotherapy drugs, but it has been difficult to design particles that can carry any more than that in a precise ratio. Now chemists have devised a new way to build such nanoparticles.
As many as 10 percent of women with a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer have at least one genetic mutation that, if known, would prompt their doctors to recommend changes in their care, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
If you follow cancer biology, then you’ve probably heard of ubiquitin before. In a recent paper researchers provided a structural rationale for how ubiquitin helps RIG-I do its job— and how that might help keep the immune system from getting out of hand.
A tiny genetic molecule known as a microRNA plays a central role in bowel cancer and could be key to developing new treatments for the disease, a new study concludes. Scientists found that the molecule, called microRNA 135b, is a vital ‘worker’ employed by several important cancer genes to drive the growth of bowel cancers.
Researchers have found a major piece of genetic evidence that confirms the role of a group of virus-fighting genes in cancer development. The APOBEC family of genes control enzymes that are believed to have evolved in humans to fight off viral infections. Scientists have speculated that these enzymes are responsible for a very distinct signature of mutations that is present in approximately half of all cancer types.
A tumor-suppressing protein acts as a dimmer switch to dial down gene expression. It does this by reading a chemical message attached to another protein that’s tightly intertwined with DNA, a team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports. The findings provide evidence in support of the “histone code" hypothesis.
In the last decade, hundreds of studies have been conducted looking for polymorphisms associated with a greater propensity to suffer some of the most frequent human tumors. These tests, called GWAS, have found a common problem: many times the tiny genetic change observed appears to have no activity or function to explain because it is associated with more cancer.
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have demonstrated in both cancer cell lines and in mice that blocking critical DNA repair mechanisms could improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy for highly fatal brain tumors called glioblastomas.
Scientists at the Salk Institute have uncovered details into a surprising—and crucial—link between brain development and a gene whose mutation is tied to breast and ovarian cancer. Aside from better understanding neurological damage associated in a small percentage of people susceptible to breast cancers, the new work also helps to better understand the evolution of the brain.
Comprehensive genomic analysis of low-grade brain tumors sorts them into three categories, one of which has the molecular hallmarks and shortened survival of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal of brain tumors, researchers reported at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2014.
The push and pull of physical force can cause profound changes in the behavior of a cell. Two studies from researchers working at the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center reveal how cells respond to mechanical manipulation, a key factor in addressing the underlying causes of cancer and other diseases.
The more cups of coffee a person drank, the lower the risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, according to new research.