Researchers eradicated most melanoma tumors by exposing them to a fast-acting virus, according to a report in the Journal of Virology. Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer and can spread throughout the body and even into the brain.
As cancer genomics scales up, more and more mutations can be detected. But in order for critical patterns and potential drug targets to emerge, researchers need to be able to eliminate the red herrings from their results and identify the genetic changes driving different cancer types. To do so, researchers have surveyed the genetic landscape of cancer to better understand the spectrum of mutations within and across cancer types.
By transferring four genes into mouse fibroblast cells, researchers have produced cells that resemble hematopoietic stem cells, which produce millions of new blood cells in the human body every day. These findings provide a platform for future development of patient-specific stem/progenitor cells, and more differentiated blood products, for cell-replacement therapy.
A protein used by embryo cells during early development, and recently found in many different types of cancer, apparently serves as a switch regulating the spread of cancer, known as metastasis, new research reports. Metastasis is responsible for 90 percent of cancer-related deaths.
A team of researchers has developed a mass spectrometry imaging technique that not only maps the whereabouts of individual metabolites in a biological sample, but how new the metabolites are too. That’s a big milestone, because metabolites are constantly in flux.
Yesterday, the RNA Institute at New York’s State University at Albany opened its doors to reveal a space that has been four years in the making: a newly expanded facility totaling 25,000 square feet, equipped with millions of dollars of laboratory equipment and constructed with a novel goal in mind – to foster collaboration on RNA research among researchers across the nation.
Malignant cells can escape from primary tumors and colonize new sites in other tissues. In a new study, researchers show how the transcription factor AP4 promotes the development of such metastatic tumors. With the aid of genome-wide characterization of AP4’s target genes and direct functional tests, researchers uncovered processes relevant to tumorigenesis and cancer progression that are triggered by the protein.
Scientists have discovered genes that control shape changes in melanoma skin cancer cells, allowing them to wriggle free and spread around the body. The research could pave the way for scientists to develop drugs for malignant skin melanoma.
Cancer cells’ appetite for sugar may have serious consequences for immune cell function, researchers at have learned. The scientists found that when they kept sugar away from critical immune cells called T-cells, the cells no longer produced interferon gamma, an inflammatory compound important for fighting tumors and some kinds of infection.
This year some 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in women. Some of these patients will succumb to the disease, while others survive. Part of the enormous disparity in outcome has to do with the differing ways diseases like cancer affect individuals based on various factors. According to new research, how we study an illness can also depend on a feature of the disease itself – one known as heterogeneity.
Scientists are reporting development and successful lab tests on the first potential drug to pack a lethal one-two punch against melanoma skin cancer cells. Hit number one destroys cells in the main tumor, and the second hit blocks the spread of the cancer to other sites in the body.
MET protein levels correlate strongly with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, a treatment-resistant type of colorectal cancer and may be used as a surrogate biomarker, according to new research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
The long-standing mystery behind dormant disseminated breast tumor cells and what activates them after years and even decades of latency may have been solved. Researchers have identified the microenvironment surrounding microvasculature as a niche where dormant cancer cells reside.
Many of the critical processes underlying cancer formation and eventual metastasis to other organs remain mysterious. In the quest for earlier diagnoses and more effective treatment, intensive research efforts have been applied to the search for biomarkers – presymptomatic signs of disease detectable in blood, saliva or other biofluids.
A simple vinegar test slashed cervical cancer death rates by one-third in a remarkable study of 150,000 women in the slums of India, where the disease is the top cancer killer of women. Doctors reported the results Sunday at a cancer conference in Chicago. Experts called the outcome "amazing" and said this quick, cheap test could save tens of thousands of lives each year in developing countries.
Doctors have shown that testing cervical tumors before treatment for vulnerability to chemotherapy predicts whether patients will do well or poorly with standard treatment. The study supports the future possibility of personalized medicine for cervical cancer, a tumor normally addressed with a one-size-fits-all approach.
Scientists have designed tiny spherical particles to float easily through the bloodstream after injection, then assemble into a durable scaffold within diseased tissue. An enzyme produced by a specific type of tumor can trigger the transformation of the spheres into netlike structures that accumulate at the site of a cancer.
Scientists have uncovered a survival mechanism that occurs in breast cells that have just turned premalignant- cells on the cusp between normalcy and cancers- which may lead to new methods of stopping tumors. Researchers report that a protein known as transforming growth factor beta, considered a tumor suppressor in early cancer development, can actually promote cancer once a cell drifts into a pre-cancerous state.
The human gut is loaded with commensal bacteria– “good” microbes that, among other functions, help the body digest food. The gastrointestinal tract contains literally trillions of such cells, and yet the immune system seemingly turns a blind eye.
Cancers of all types become most deadly when they metastasize and spread tumors throughout the body. Once cancer has reached this stage, it becomes very difficult for doctors to locate and treat the numerous tumors that can develop. Now, researchers have found a way to create radioactive nanoparticles that target lymphoma tumor cells wherever they may be in the body.
Genome sequencing of head and neck cancers may quickly—and soon—spur new therapies. There are 20 tumor types being studied by the massive, $100 million Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the eighth to be unveiled. The first, glioblastoma, has been cited in a whopping 2000-plus manuscripts.
A new method of measuring the variety of genetic mutations found in cells within a tumor appears to predict treatment outcomes of patients with the most common type of head and neck cancer. The research describes how a new way of measuring tumor heterogeneity was a better predictor of survival than are most traditional risk factors in a small group of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
People who have non-melanoma skin cancer may be less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease, according to new research. The study showed that individuals with skin cancer were nearly 80 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease compared with people who did not have skin cancer. No such association was found with other types of dementia, such as vascular dementia.
A soon-to-be-tested class of drug inhibitors were predicted to help a limited number of patients with B-cell lymphomas with mutations affecting the EZH2 protein. However, a research team now reports that these agents may, in fact, help a much broader cross section of lymphoma patients.
When cells suffer too much DNA damage, they are usually forced to undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, cancer cells often ignore these signals, flourishing even after chemotherapy drugs have ravaged their DNA. A new finding may offer a way to overcome that resistance.