New research has thrown light on the way breakdowns in the DNA copying process inside cells can contribute to cancer and other diseases. A team of researchers discovered that the protein machines that copy DNA in a model organism pause frequently during this copying process, creating the potential for dangerous mutations to develop.
Researchers are abuzz after using fruit flies to find new ways of taking advantage of caffeine’s lethal effects on cancer cells—results that could one day be used to advance cancer therapies for people. Previous research has established that caffeine interferes with processes in cancer cells that control DNA repair, a finding that has generated interest in using the stimulant as a chemotherapy treatment.
Researchers have identified a molecule that prevents repair of some cancer cells, providing a potential new "genetic chemotherapy" approach to cancer treatment that could significantly reduce side effects and the development of treatment resistance compared with traditional chemotherapy.
Three scientists at universities in Pennsylvania, Illinois and Oregon whose research has helped transform cancer treatment will share one of the richest prizes in medicine and biomedical research. Dr. Peter Nowell of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Janet Rowley of the University of Chicago...
Recently, doctors have begun to categorize breast cancers into four main groups according to the genetic makeup of the cancer cells. Which category a cancer falls into generally determines the best method of treatment. But cancers in one of the four groups— called "basal-like" or "triple-negative" breast cancer (TNBC)— have been particularly tricky to treat because they usually don't respond to the "receptor-targeted" treatments.
Scientists have decoded the genome of the platyfish, a cousin of the guppy and a popular choice for home aquariums. Among scientists, the fish are meticulously studied for their tendency to develop melanoma and for other attributes more common to mammals, like courting prospective mates and giving birth to live young.
A unique sub-type of bowel cancer has been discovered which has a worse outcome than other types of colon cancer and is resistant to certain targeted treatments, according to new research. Researchers analyzed tumors from 90 separate patients with stage II colon cancer and found that they could group the samples into three distinct sub-types.
Researchers have identified mutations responsible for more than half of a subtype of childhood brain tumor that takes a high toll on patients. Researchers also found evidence the tumors are susceptible to drugs already in development. The study focused on a family of brain tumors known as low-grade gliomas (LGGs).
Like finally seeing all the gears of a watch and how they work together, researchers have, for the first time ever, solved the puzzle of how the various components of an entire telomerase enzyme complex fit together and function in a three-dimensional structure.
Researchers have “rationally rewired” some of the cell’s smallest components to create proteins that can be switched on or off by command. These “protein switches” can be used to interrogate the inner workings of each cell, helping scientists uncover the molecular mechanisms of human health and disease.
A Phase 2 clinical trial, described this week in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, tested a new protocol for treating a relatively rare form of brain cancer, primary CNS lymphoma, that may change the standard of care for this disease, according to doctors who led the research.
The need to distinguish between normal cells and tumor cells is a feature that has been long sought for most types of cancer drugs. Tumor antigens, unique proteins on the surface of a tumor, are potential targets for a normal immune response against cancer.
Nitric oxide (NO), a gas with many biological functions in healthy cells, can also help some cancer cells survive chemotherapy. A new study reveals one way in which this resistance may arise, and raises the possibility of weakening cancer cells by cutting off their supply of NO.
Cancer painfully ends more than 500,000 lives in the United States each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The scientific crusade against cancer recently achieved a victory.
Physician-researchers have identified a vulnerability of certain lung cancer cells– a specific genetic weakness that can be exploited for new therapies.
Although bladder cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer in the U.S. and the most expensive to treat, the basic method that doctors use to treat it hasn’t changed much in more than 70 years.
Researchers reported that three-dimensional scaffolds used to culture Ewing’s sarcoma cells were effective at mimicking the environment in which such tumors develop.
In a first-of-its-kind experiment using microvesicles generated from mesenchymal bone marrow cells (MSCs) to treat cancer, neurological researchers have discovered a novel approach for treatment of tumors.
Most cancer treatments are blunt. In an attempt to eradicate tumors, oncologists often turn to radiation or chemotherapy, which can damage healthy tissue along with the cancerous growths. New research may bring scientists closer to designing cancer therapeutics that can target tumors with pinpoint accuracy.
An intuitive approach, which co-opts the body’s own molecular machinery, has led to massive expansions of umbilical cord blood cells. It and other new approaches “will revolutionize all transplantation,” says University of Minnesota Blood and Marrow Transplantation Director John Wagner.
In a laboratory study pairing food chemistry and cancer biology, scientists tested the potentially harmful effect of foods and flavorings on the DNA of cells. They found that liquid smoke flavoring, black and green teas and coffee activated the highest levels of a well-known, cancer-linked gene called p53.
A huge international effort involving more than 100 institutions and genetic tests on 200,000 people has uncovered dozens of signposts in DNA that can help reveal further a person's risk for breast, ovarian or prostate cancer, scientists reported Wednesday.
Researchers have identified a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets and directly kills chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The findings represent a potential new therapy for treating at least some patients with CLL, the most common type of blood cancer in the United States.
Oxford Gene Technology (OGT) released a new microarray designed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cancer research. The CytoSure Cancer +SNP array (4x180k) combines long oligo array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) probes with fully validated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content.
The first multi-gene test that can help predict cancer patients' responses to treatment using the latest DNA sequencing techniques has been launched in the NHS. The test detects mutations across 46 genes in cancer cells.