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U.S. Faces Crisis in Cancer Care

September 11, 2013 1:09 pm Videos Comments

Delivery of cancer care in the U.S. is facing a crisis stemming from a combination of factors—a growing demand for such care, a shrinking oncology work force, rising costs of cancer care, and the complexity of the disease and its treatment, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine.

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Inner-ear Disorders May Cause Hyperactivity

September 6, 2013 10:08 am Videos Comments

Behavioral abnormalities are traditionally thought to originate in the brain. But a new study has found that inner-ear dysfunction can directly cause neurological changes that increase hyperactivity. The study, conducted in mice, also implicated two brain proteins in this process, providing potential targets for intervention.

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Stress-related Protein Speeds Alzheimer’s Progression

September 4, 2013 11:40 am Videos Comments

A stress-related protein genetically linked to depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders contributes to the acceleration of Alzheimer’s disease, a new study has found. When the protein FKBP51 partners with another protein, Hsp90, the team prevents the brain from clearing the toxic tau protein, associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

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TB Has Surprising Family Tree

September 3, 2013 11:42 am Videos Comments

For years, physicians around the world have watched as strain after strain of the deadly bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis evolves resistance to drugs. A new method of analyzing whole genome sequences of TB, applied to a massive set of strains of the bacteria collected from clinics around the world, has revealed 39 new genes associated with elevated drug resistance.

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Researchers Discover a Potential Cause of Autism

August 29, 2013 10:27 am Videos Comments

Problems with a key group of enzymes called topoisomerases can have profound effects on the genetic machinery behind brain development and potentially lead to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Scientists at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have described a finding that represents a significant advance in the hunt for environmental factors behind autism and lends new insights into the disorder’s genetic causes.

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Researcher Controls Colleague’s Motions in First Human Brain-to-brain Interface

August 27, 2013 3:36 pm Videos Comments

Researchers have performed what they believe is the first noninvasive human-to-human brain interface, with one researcher able to send a brain signal via the Internet to control the hand motions of a fellow researcher, using electrical brain recordings and a form of magnetic stimulation.

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Robots Remove Brain Blood Clots

August 9, 2013 10:25 am Videos Comments

Surgery to relieve the damaging pressure caused by hemorrhaging in the brain is a perfect job for a robot. That is the basic premise of a new image-guided surgical system, under development, that employs steerable needles to penetrate the brain with minimal damage and suction away the blood clot that has formed.

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Real-time MRI Guides Gene Therapy to Tumors

August 7, 2013 10:08 am Videos Comments

Neurosurgeons from University of California, San Diego are among the first in the world to utilize real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance for delivery of gene therapy as a potential treatment for brain tumors. Using MRI navigational technology, neurosurgeons can inject a novel investigational gene therapy directly into a brain malignancy.

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Celiac Intestinal Damage Ups Cancer Risk

August 6, 2013 10:31 am Videos Comments

Patients with celiac disease who had persistent intestine damage (identified with repeat biopsy) had a higher risk of lymphoma than patients whose intestines healed, according to a new study. The damage is due to a reaction to eating gluten, which is found in wheat, barley and rye.

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Prion Tail Poisons Brain Cells

August 1, 2013 12:11 pm Videos Comments

For decades, there has been no answer to the question of why the altered prion protein- the infectious pathogen that causes Mad Cow Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease- is poisonous to brain cells. Now, neuropathologists have shown that it is the flexible tail of the prion protein that triggers cell death.

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Marijuana Linked to Adolescent Brain Abnormalities

July 25, 2013 10:19 am Videos Comments

Regular marijuana use in adolescence, but not adulthood, may permanently impair brain function and cognition, and may increase the risk of developing serious psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, according to a recent preclinical study. Researchers hope that the study will help to shed light on the potential long-term effects of marijuana use.

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Bacteria Use Social Networks to Survive

July 22, 2013 11:07 am Videos Comments

The next time your Facebook stream is filled with cat videos, think about Myxococcus xanthus. The single-cell soil bacterium also uses a social network. Using several imaging techniques, scientists saw for the first time that M. xanthus cells are connected by a network of chain-like membranes.The scientists believe M. xanthus uses its network to quietly transfer proteins and other molecules from one to another.

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Nerves Play Key Role in Prostate Cancer

July 12, 2013 10:08 am Videos Comments

Researchers have found that nerves play a critical role in both the development and spread of prostate tumors. Their findings, using both a mouse model and human prostate tissue, may lead to new ways to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer and to novel therapies for preventing and treating the disease.

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Potential Cancer Diagnosis Biomarker Identified

July 9, 2013 10:29 am Videos Comments

Micronuclei, erratic, small extra nuclei, which contain fragments, or whole chromosomes that were not incorporated into daughter cells after cell division, are associated with specific forms of cancer and are predictive of poorer prognosis. In a new study, a team of scientists found that disrupted micronuclei might play an even more active role in carcinogenesis than previously thought.

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Human Cells Caught Making Hydrogen Sulfide

June 19, 2013 9:55 am Videos Comments

A new study confirms directly what scientists previously knew only indirectly: The poisonous “rotten egg” gas hydrogen sulfide is generated by our body’s growing cells. Hydrogen sulfide, or H2S, is normally toxic, but in small amounts it plays a role in cardiovascular health.

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